Understanding agent-based models of financial markets: a bottom-up approach based on order parameters and phase diagrams
We describe a bottom-up framework, based on the identification of appropriate order parameters and determination of phase diagrams, for understanding progressively refined agent-based models and simulations of financial markets. We illustrate this framework by starting with a deterministic toy model, whereby $N$ independent traders buy and sell $M$ stocks through an order book that acts as a clearing house. The price of a stock increases whenever it is bought and decreases whenever it is sold. Price changes are updated by the order book before the next transaction takes place. In this deterministic model, all traders based their buy decisions on a call utility function, and all their sell decisions on a put utility function. We then make the agent-based model more realistic, by either having a fraction $f_b$ of traders buy a random stock on offer, or a fraction $f_s$ of traders sell a random stock in their portfolio. Based on our simulations, we find that it is possible to identify useful order parameters from the steady-state price distributions of all three models. Using these order parameters as a guide, we find three phases: (i) the dead market; (ii) the boom market; and (iii) the jammed market in the the phase diagram of the deterministic model. Comparing the phase diagrams of the stochastic models against that of the deterministic model, we realize that the primary effect of stochasticity is to eliminate the dead market phase.
References listed on IDEAS
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Bak, P. & Paczuski, M. & Shubik, M., 1997.
"Price variations in a stock market with many agents,"
Physica A: Statistical Mechanics and its Applications,
Elsevier, vol. 246(3), pages 430-453.
- P. Bak & M. Paczuski & Martin Shubik, 1996. "Price Variations in a Stock Market with Many Agents," Cowles Foundation Discussion Papers 1132, Cowles Foundation for Research in Economics, Yale University.
- P. Bak & M. Paczuski & M. Shubik, 1996. "Price Variations in a Stock Market with Many Agents," Working Papers 96-09-075, Santa Fe Institute.
- Lux, T. & M. Marchesi, "undated". "Volatility Clustering in Financial Markets: A Micro-Simulation of Interacting Agents," Discussion Paper Serie B 437, University of Bonn, Germany, revised Jul 1998.
- L. Gauvin & J. Vannimenus & J.-P. Nadal, 2009. "Phase diagram of a Schelling segregation model," The European Physical Journal B: Condensed Matter and Complex Systems, Springer;EDP Sciences, vol. 70(2), pages 293-304, July.
- Maslov, Sergei, 2000. "Simple model of a limit order-driven market," Physica A: Statistical Mechanics and its Applications, Elsevier, vol. 278(3), pages 571-578.
- Iori, Giulia, 2002. "A microsimulation of traders activity in the stock market: the role of heterogeneity, agents' interactions and trade frictions," Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization, Elsevier, vol. 49(2), pages 269-285, October.
- Giulia Iori, 1999. "A microsimulation of traders activity in the stock market: the role of heterogeneity, agents' interactions and trade frictions," Finance 9905005, EconWPA.
- Giulia Iori, 2000. "A microsimulation of traders activity in the stock market: the role of heterogeneity, agents' interactions and trade frictions," Finance 0004007, EconWPA.
- Lux, T. & M. Marchesi, "undated". "Scaling and Criticality in a Stochastic Multi-Agent Model of a Financial Market," Discussion Paper Serie B 438, University of Bonn, Germany, revised Jul 1998.
- Raberto, Marco & Cincotti, Silvano & Focardi, Sergio M. & Marchesi, Michele, 2001. "Agent-based simulation of a financial market," Physica A: Statistical Mechanics and its Applications, Elsevier, vol. 299(1), pages 319-327.
- Marco Raberto & Silvano Cincotti & Sergio M. Focardi & Michele Marchesi, 2001. "Agent-based simulation of a financial market," Papers cond-mat/0103600, arXiv.org, revised Mar 2001.
- Levy, Haim & Levy, Moshe & Solomon, Sorin, 2000. "Microscopic Simulation of Financial Markets," Elsevier Monographs, Elsevier, edition 1, number 9780124458901.
- Sato, Aki-Hiro & Takayasu, Hideki, 1998. "Dynamic numerical models of stock market price: from microscopic determinism to macroscopic randomness," Physica A: Statistical Mechanics and its Applications, Elsevier, vol. 250(1), pages 231-252.
- Giardina, Irene & Bouchaud, Jean-Philippe, 2003. "Volatility clustering in agent based market models," Physica A: Statistical Mechanics and its Applications, Elsevier, vol. 324(1), pages 6-16. Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)
When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:arx:papers:1202.0606. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (arXiv administrators)
If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.
If the full references list an item that is present in RePEc, but the system did not link to it, you can help with this form.
If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.
Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.