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Impactos Dos Fundos Setoriais Nasempresas

  • LUIZ RICARDO CAVALCANTE

    (IPEA)

  • BRUNO CÉSAR ARAÚJO

    (IPEA)

  • DONALD PIANTO

    (UNB)

  • FERNANDA DE NEGRI

    (IPEA)

  • PATRICK ALVES

    (IPEA)

Os fundos setoriais foram instituídos no final da década de 1990 com o propósito de criar condições mais estáveis de financiamento público às atividades de ciência, tecnologia e inovação (CT&I) no Brasil. De maneira análoga ao que se observa com outros instrumentos de incentivo à inovação nas empresas, a expectativa é que o acesso aos fundos setoriais contribuiria para o aumento dos esforços tecnológicos e para o alcance de melhores resultados pelas empresas. O objetivo deste trabalho é, portanto, avaliar o impacto desses fundos sobre o esforço tecnológico e sobre os resultados das empresas industriais no Brasil no período entre 2001 e 2006. A base teórica para a discussão é a literatura internacional que tem, recorrentemente, questionado o efeito crowding in ou crowding out de políticas de apoio à inovação nas empresas. Esses trabalhos buscam verificar se as políticas adotadas complementam os recursos alocados nas atividades de inovação pelas empresas ou se haveria simplesmente a substituição desses últimos pelos recursos públicos. Neste artigo, uma técnica quasi-experimental é aplicada para comparar as empresas que acessaram os fundos setoriais com aquelas que não os acessaram, usando dados de painel que incluem informações sobre esforços tecnológicos e resultados. O grupo de controle é definido com base no algoritmo de Propensity Score Matching (PSM) visando eliminar o viés de seleção no acesso aos fundos que faz com que, a priori, as empresas que acessam esses recursos trilhem uma trajetória distinta das empresas que não acessam. Estimativas das diferenças percentuais das taxas de crescimento dos esforços tecnológicos indicam um significativo descolamento entre os grupos de tratamento e controle e permitem que se rejeite a hipótese de crowding out. Os fundos setoriais apresentam ainda um impacto positivo e significativo no pessoal ocupado total, embora apenas um impacto marginalmente significante nas exportações de alto conteúdo tecnológico tenha sido observado,

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Paper provided by ANPEC - Associação Nacional dos Centros de Pósgraduação em Economia [Brazilian Association of Graduate Programs in Economics] in its series Anais do XXXVIII Encontro Nacional de Economia [Proceedings of the 38th Brazilian Economics Meeting] with number 124.

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Date of creation: 2011
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Handle: RePEc:anp:en2010:124
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  1. Hall, Bronwyn & Van Reenen, John, 2000. "How effective are fiscal incentives for R&D? A review of the evidence," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 29(4-5), pages 449-469, April.
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  3. Isabel Busom, 2000. "An Empirical Evaluation of The Effects of R&D Subsidies," Economics of Innovation and New Technology, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 9(2), pages 111-148.
  4. Mohnen, Pierre & Lokshin, Boris, 2009. "What does it take for an R&D tax incentive policy to be effective?," MERIT Working Papers 014, United Nations University - Maastricht Economic and Social Research Institute on Innovation and Technology (MERIT).
  5. Almus, Matthias & Czarnitzki, Dirk, 2001. "The effects of public R&D subsidies on firms' innovation activities: the case of Eastern Germany," ZEW Discussion Papers 01-10, ZEW - Zentrum für Europäische Wirtschaftsforschung / Center for European Economic Research.
  6. Aschhoff, Birgit, 2009. "The effect of subsidies on R&D investment and success: do subsidy history and size matter?," ZEW Discussion Papers 09-032, ZEW - Zentrum für Europäische Wirtschaftsforschung / Center for European Economic Research.
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