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GINI DP 68: Material Deprivation in Europe


  • Calvert, E. (Emma)
  • Brian Nolan

    () (School of Applied Social Science, University College Dublin)


Introduction Most research on poverty in Europe employs income to distinguish the poor, with a great deal of research and debate on how best to establish an income cut-off – examples from a very large literature include Atkinson, Rainwater and Smeeding (1995) and the OECD’s recent comparative studies Growing Unequal (2008) and Divided We Stand (2011). In parallel, though, non-monetary indicators of living standards and deprivation have also been developed and investigated, notably in Townsend’s (1979) pioneering work using them to derive and validate an income poverty threshold, and Mack and Lansley’s (1985) attempt to directly identify those experiencing exclusion in Britain. Since then an extensive research literature on measures of material deprivation in OECD countries has grown up, with the valuable review by Boarini and Mira d’Ercole (2006) listing over a hundred studies. A much more limited set of studies employs non-monetary indicators to capture and analyse poverty and exclusion in a comparative perspective, in particular the countries of the European Union (EU) before and after enlargement (This research is reviewed, and a full set of references given, in Nolan and Whelan, 2011, Chapter 2).These rely on indicators from the European Community Household Panel Survey (ECHP) organised by Eurostat and carried out in most of the (then) EU member states from the mid-1990s to 2001, and from the EU-Statistics on Income and Living Conditions (EU-SILC) data-gathering framework which replaced the ECHP. ...

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  • Calvert, E. (Emma) & Brian Nolan, 2012. "GINI DP 68: Material Deprivation in Europe," GINI Discussion Papers 68, AIAS, Amsterdam Institute for Advanced Labour Studies.
  • Handle: RePEc:aia:ginidp:68

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Christopher T. Whelan & Bertrand Maitre, 2009. "Welfare Regime and Social Class Variation in Poverty and Economic Vulnerability in Europe: An Analysis of EU-SILC," Papers WP303, Economic and Social Research Institute (ESRI).
    2. Romina Boarini & Marco Mira d'Ercole, 2006. "Measures of Material Deprivation in OECD Countries," OECD Social, Employment and Migration Working Papers 37, OECD Publishing.
    3. Francesco Figari, 2012. "Cross-national differences in determinants of multiple deprivation in Europe," The Journal of Economic Inequality, Springer;Society for the Study of Economic Inequality, vol. 10(3), pages 397-418, September.
    4. Cappellari, Lorenzo & Jenkins, Stephen P., 2006. "Summarizing multiple deprivation indicators," ISER Working Paper Series 2006-40, Institute for Social and Economic Research.
    5. Nolan, Brian & Whelan, Christopher T., 2011. "Poverty and Deprivation in Europe," OUP Catalogue, Oxford University Press, number 9780199588435, June.
    6. Nolan, Brian & Whelan, Christopher T., 1996. "Resources, Deprivation, and Poverty," OUP Catalogue, Oxford University Press, number 9780198287858, June.
    7. Christopher T. Whelan & Brian Nolan & Bertrand Maitre, 2008. "Measuring Material Deprivation in the Enlarged EU," Papers WP249, Economic and Social Research Institute (ESRI).
    8. Guio, Anne-Catherine & Fusco, Alessio & Marlier, Eric, 2009. "A European Union Approach to Material Deprivation using EU-SILC and Eurobarometer data," IRISS Working Paper Series 2009-19, IRISS at CEPS/INSTEAD.
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    Cited by:

    1. Polly Vizard & Lin Yang, 2017. "Multidimensional poverty and income inequality in the EU," CASE Papers /207, Centre for Analysis of Social Exclusion, LSE.

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