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Finding Solutions To Ethical Problems In Agriculture


  • James, Harvey S., Jr.


This paper distinguishes between two types of ethical Problems. A Type I ethical problem is one in which there is no consensus as to what is ethical. A Type II ethical problem is one in which there is a consensus as to what is ethical, but incentives exist for individuals to behave unethically. This paper shows that Type I ethical problems can only be resolved by making, challenging and reasoning through moral arguments, and Type II ethical problems can only be resolved by changing the institutional environment so that people do not have incentives to behave Unethically. Applications to and examples from agricultural and environmental problems are provided.

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  • James, Harvey S., Jr., 2002. "Finding Solutions To Ethical Problems In Agriculture," Working Papers 26046, University of Missouri Columbia, Department of Agricultural Economics.
  • Handle: RePEc:ags:umcowp:26046

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. James Brickley & Clifford W. Smith & Jerold L. Zimmerman, 1994. "Ethics, Incentives, And Organizational Design," Journal of Applied Corporate Finance, Morgan Stanley, vol. 7(2), pages 20-30.
    2. Dunfee, Thomas W., 1991. "Business Ethics and Extant Social Contracts," Business Ethics Quarterly, Cambridge University Press, vol. 1(01), pages 23-51, January.
    3. Harvey S. James Jr., 2002. "On the Reliability of Trusting," Rationality and Society, , vol. 14(2), pages 229-256, May.
    4. Fan, Chinn-Ping, 2000. "Teaching children cooperation -- An application of experimental game theory," Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization, Elsevier, vol. 41(3), pages 191-209, March.
    5. Harvey S. James Jr. & Jeffrey Cohen, 2002. "Does Ethics Training Neutralize the Incentives of the Prisoner's Dilemma? Evidence from a Classroom Experiment," General Economics and Teaching 0202002, University Library of Munich, Germany, revised 12 Mar 2003.
    6. Metzger, Michael & Dalton, Dan R. & Hill, John W., 1993. "The Organization of Ethics and the Ethics of Organizations: The Case for Expanded Organizational Ethics Audits," Business Ethics Quarterly, Cambridge University Press, vol. 3(01), pages 27-44, January.
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    Cited by:

    1. Diebel, Penelope L., 2008. "Ethics and Agriculture: A Teaching Perspective," Journal of Agricultural and Resource Economics, Western Agricultural Economics Association, vol. 33(3), pages 1-8.
    2. James, Harvey S., Jr., 2003. "Farming For Ethics: An Examination Of The Ethical Challenges Of Missouri Corn And Soybean Producers," Working Papers 26036, University of Missouri Columbia, Department of Agricultural Economics.
    3. James, Harvey S., Jr. & Henrickson, Mary K., 2007. "Perceived Economic Pressures and Farmer Ethics," Working Papers 7361, University of Missouri Columbia, Department of Agricultural Economics.

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    Political Economy;


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