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Linkages and spillover effects of South African foreign direct investment in Botswana and Kenya


  • Felix A. Nandonde

    (Morogoro, Tanzania)

  • Richard Adu-Gyamfi

    (Geneva, Switzerland)

  • Tinaye S. Mmusi

    (Gaborone, Botswana)

  • Herbert Wamalwa

    (University of Nairobi, Kenya)

  • Simplice A. Asongu

    (Yaoundé, Cameroon)

  • Johannes P. Opperman

    (University of Stellenbosch, South Africa)

  • Jeremiah R. Makindara

    (Morogoro, Tanzania)


In recent decades, the impact of South African foreign direct investment in Africa has been captured by research and policy. This paper investigates linkages and spillover effects of South African foreign direct investment in Botswana and Kenya. The study uses primary data to investigate qualitative implications. The findings reveal that South African firms operate in sectors including retail, food-processing, and information and communication technology. Linkages forged in these sectors include supply, employee, joint venture, service, and institutional nexuses. Supply and service linkages create observable spillovers which point to the fact that younger local firms tend to benefit from South African firms in terms of technology transfer and training opportunities. Host country policymakers are therefore encouraged to provide favourable incentives for foreign direct investment to promote entrepreneurship. Other policy implications are also discussed.

Suggested Citation

  • Felix A. Nandonde & Richard Adu-Gyamfi & Tinaye S. Mmusi & Herbert Wamalwa & Simplice A. Asongu & Johannes P. Opperman & Jeremiah R. Makindara, 2019. "Linkages and spillover effects of South African foreign direct investment in Botswana and Kenya," Working Papers of the African Governance and Development Institute. 19/039, African Governance and Development Institute..
  • Handle: RePEc:agd:wpaper:19/039

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    References listed on IDEAS

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    More about this item


    Foreign direct investment; linkages; spillover effects; South Africa; Botswana; Kenya;

    JEL classification:

    • E23 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - Consumption, Saving, Production, Employment, and Investment - - - Production
    • F21 - International Economics - - International Factor Movements and International Business - - - International Investment; Long-Term Capital Movements
    • F30 - International Economics - - International Finance - - - General
    • L96 - Industrial Organization - - Industry Studies: Transportation and Utilities - - - Telecommunications
    • L98 - Industrial Organization - - Industry Studies: Transportation and Utilities - - - Government Policy
    • O55 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Economywide Country Studies - - - Africa

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