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Internationalization of Banks: Strategic Patterns and Performance

Editor

Listed:
  • Morten Balling
    ()

Author

Listed:
  • Alfred Slager

Abstract

This essay investigates the relationship between the internationalization of banks, profitability and shareholder value. We argue that in general internationalization has not contributed to profitability, and shareholders have not gained by investing in banks with more international activities. A database with internationalization measures is constructed for the 3 to 5 largest banks in 8 countries between 1980 and 2003, leading to a sample of 44 banks. The transnationality index is calculated for each bank, combining foreign assets, foreign income and foreign staff into one index. To examine the relationship between internationalization and performance, we calculated the difference between foreign and domestic profitability. We also investigate if more internationalization is related to more profitability. The key finding is that foreign profitability tends to be lower than domestic, and a negative relationship exists between total profitability and internationalization. Also, a " J-curve" shape appears, suggesting that up to a certain degree of internationalization (roughly 40% of foreign staff, income and assets), costs tend to outrun benefits. A similar pattern emerges for shareholder return: banks that either strongly or moderately increased their internationalization activities generated the lowest shareholder return as a group, while banks that retreated generated the most. For the future, we identify banks which are likely in the near future to reassess their internationalization strategy, either to develop a business model where internationalization activities are a stable and profitable source of income, or where banks refocus their attention to the domestic banking market.

Suggested Citation

  • Alfred Slager, 2005. "Internationalization of Banks: Strategic Patterns and Performance," SUERF Studies, SUERF - The European Money and Finance Forum, number 2005/4 edited by Morten Balling.
  • Handle: RePEc:erf:erfstu:37
    as

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    File URL: http://www.suerf.org/docx/s_2ba596643cbbbc20318224181fa46b28_957_suerf.pdf
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    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. David T. Llewellyn, 2002. "The Future for Small & Regional Banks in Europe," Chapters in SUERF Studies, SUERF - The European Money and Finance Forum.
    2. Cem Karacadag & Michael W. Taylor, 2000. "The New Capital Adequacy Framework - Institutional Constraints and Incentive Structures," SUERF Studies, SUERF - The European Money and Finance Forum, number 8 edited by Morten Balling.
    3. Ricardo Brogi & Paolo Santella, 2004. "Two New Measures of Bankruptcy Efficiency," Chapters in SUERF Studies, SUERF - The European Money and Finance Forum.
    4. Daniel Sullivan, 1994. "Measuring the Degree of Internationalization of a Firm," Journal of International Business Studies, Palgrave Macmillan;Academy of International Business, vol. 25(2), pages 325-342, June.
    5. Sunil Sharma & Sushil Bikhchandani, 2000. "Herd Behavior in Financial Markets; A Review," IMF Working Papers 00/48, International Monetary Fund.
    6. Rolf Skog, 1997. "Does Sweden Need a Mandatory Bid Rule? A critical analysis," Chapters in SUERF Studies, SUERF - The European Money and Finance Forum.
    7. Peter R Haiss & Gerhard Fink, 1998. "Seven Years of Financial Market Reform in Central Europe," Chapters in SUERF Studies, SUERF - The European Money and Finance Forum.
    8. Alan M Rugman, 1976. "Risk Reduction by International Diversification," Journal of International Business Studies, Palgrave Macmillan;Academy of International Business, vol. 7(2), pages 75-80, June.
    9. Adrian E Tschoegl, 1987. "International Retail Banking as a Strategy: An Assessment," Journal of International Business Studies, Palgrave Macmillan;Academy of International Business, vol. 18(2), pages 67-88, June.
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    Citations

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    Cited by:

    1. John Barry Howcroft & Rehan ul-Haq & Chris Carr, 2010. "An examination of cross-border strategies in banking," The Service Industries Journal, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 31(13), pages 2091-2109, June.
    2. Victor Gorshkov, 2013. "Inward entry of Japanese banks into the Russian market," KIER Working Papers 864, Kyoto University, Institute of Economic Research.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    internationalization; banking; value creation; performance;

    JEL classification:

    • F23 - International Economics - - International Factor Movements and International Business - - - Multinational Firms; International Business
    • F30 - International Economics - - International Finance - - - General
    • G21 - Financial Economics - - Financial Institutions and Services - - - Banks; Other Depository Institutions; Micro Finance Institutions; Mortgages
    • L1 - Industrial Organization - - Market Structure, Firm Strategy, and Market Performance

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