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Impact Of Farmer Field Schools On Agricultural Income And Skills: Evidence From An Aid‐Funded Project In Rural Ethiopia


  • Yasuyuki Todo
  • Ryo Takahashi


This study estimates the effect of farmer field schools in rural Ethiopia on income from agriculture. The farmer field schools were established in association with participatory forest management associations for forest protection funded by Japanese aid. We employ a difference-in-differences propensity score matching approach to correct for possible biases due to selection of participants. We find that by participating in the farmer field schools, agricultural households increased their real income per worker by about 60-160 US dollars on average, which is equivalent to, or even more than, the average income per worker before the project. We also find evidence that the large increase in income is due to the use of new agricultural practices, such as new varieties, taught and promoted in the farmer field schools.
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Suggested Citation

  • Yasuyuki Todo & Ryo Takahashi, 2013. "Impact Of Farmer Field Schools On Agricultural Income And Skills: Evidence From An Aid‐Funded Project In Rural Ethiopia," Journal of International Development, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 25(3), pages 362-381, April.
  • Handle: RePEc:wly:jintdv:v:25:y:2013:i:3:p:362-381

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Rock, Michael T., 1996. "The stork, the plow, rural social structure and tropical deforestation in poor countries?," Ecological Economics, Elsevier, vol. 18(2), pages 113-131, August.
    2. A. Smith, Jeffrey & E. Todd, Petra, 2005. "Does matching overcome LaLonde's critique of nonexperimental estimators?," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 125(1-2), pages 305-353.
    3. Gershon Feder & Rinku Murgai & Jaime B. Quizon, 2004. "Sending Farmers Back to School: The Impact of Farmer Field Schools in Indonesia," Review of Agricultural Economics, Agricultural and Applied Economics Association, vol. 26(1), pages 45-62.
    4. James J. Heckman & Hidehiko Ichimura & Petra E. Todd, 1997. "Matching As An Econometric Evaluation Estimator: Evidence from Evaluating a Job Training Programme," Review of Economic Studies, Oxford University Press, vol. 64(4), pages 605-654.
    5. Jalan, Jyotsna & Ravallion, Martin, 2003. "Does piped water reduce diarrhea for children in rural India?," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 112(1), pages 153-173, January.
    6. Keisuke Hirano & Guido W. Imbens & Geert Ridder, 2003. "Efficient Estimation of Average Treatment Effects Using the Estimated Propensity Score," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 71(4), pages 1161-1189, July.
    7. Anderson, Jock R. & Feder, Gershon, 2007. "Agricultural Extension," Handbook of Agricultural Economics, Elsevier.
    8. Edwin Leuven & Barbara Sianesi, 2003. "PSMATCH2: Stata module to perform full Mahalanobis and propensity score matching, common support graphing, and covariate imbalance testing," Statistical Software Components S432001, Boston College Department of Economics, revised 01 Feb 2018.
    9. Takahashi, Ryo & Todo, Yasuyuki, 2011. "Impact of Community Management on Forest Protection:Evidence from an Aid-Funded Project in Ethiopia," Working Papers 31, JICA Research Institute.
    10. Rudel, Tom & Roper, Jill, 1997. "The paths to rain forest destruction: Crossnational patterns of tropical deforestation, 1975-1990," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 25(1), pages 53-65, January.
    11. Howard White & Edoardo Masset, 2007. "Assessing interventions to improve child nutrition: a theory-based impact evaluation of the Bangladesh Integrated Nutrition Project," Journal of International Development, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 19(5), pages 627-652.
    12. Edward Miguel & Michael Kremer, 2004. "Worms: Identifying Impacts on Education and Health in the Presence of Treatment Externalities," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 72(1), pages 159-217, January.
    13. James J. Heckman & Hidehiko Ichimura & Petra Todd, 1998. "Matching As An Econometric Evaluation Estimator," Review of Economic Studies, Oxford University Press, vol. 65(2), pages 261-294.
    14. Todo, Yasuyuki, 2011. "Impacts of Aid-Funded Technical Assistance Programs: Firm-Level Evidence from the Indonesian Foundry Industry," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 39(3), pages 351-362, March.
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    Cited by:

    1. Takahashi, Ryo & Todo, Yasuyuki, 2015. "Coffee certification and forest quality: A case in Ethiopia," 2015 Conference, August 9-14, 2015, Milan, Italy 211939, International Association of Agricultural Economists.
    2. Takahashi, Ryo & Todo, Yasuyuki, 2013. "Impact of a Shade Coffee Certification Program on Forest Conservation:A Case Study from a Wild Coffee Forest in Ethiopia," Working Papers 55, JICA Research Institute.
    3. Takahashi, Ryo & Todo, Yasuyuki, 2017. "Coffee Certification and Forest Quality: Evidence from a Wild Coffee Forest in Ethiopia," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 92(C), pages 158-166.
    4. Bonan, Jacopo & Pagani, Laura, 2016. "Junior Farmer Field Schools, Agricultural Knowledge and Spillover Effects: Quasi-experimental Evidence from Northern Uganda," MITP: Mitigation, Innovation,and Transformation Pathways 250257, Fondazione Eni Enrico Mattei (FEEM).
    5. repec:gam:jlands:v:7:y:2018:i:1:p:24-:d:131990 is not listed on IDEAS
    6. repec:gam:jscscx:v:7:y:2017:i:1:p:4-:d:124372 is not listed on IDEAS
    7. Takahashi, Ryo & Todo, Yasuyuki & Degefa, Terefe, 2015. "The effects of a participatory approach on the adoption of agricultural technology: Focusing on the social network structure in rural Ethiopia," Studies in Agricultural Economics, Research Institute for Agricultural Economics, vol. 117(1), April.
    8. Larsen, Anna Folke & Lilleør, Helene Bie, 2014. "Beyond the Field: The Impact of Farmer Field Schools on Food Security and Poverty Alleviation," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 64(C), pages 843-859.

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