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Educational inequalities in the midst of persistent poverty: Diversity across Africa in educational outcomes

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  • Cynthia B. Lloyd

    (Population Council, New York, USA)

  • Paul Hewett

    (Population Council, New York, USA)

Abstract

This paper explores inequalities in education across sub-Saharan Africa, the poorest continent. Although we primarily focus on primary school completion rates, some attention is also given to measures of basic literacy as a more proximate indicator of human capital acquisition. Using data from the Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) and UNICEF's Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys (MICS), we present data on cross-country variations in primary school completion rates, including gender and wealth gaps. While these data paint a picture of overall educational progress, particularly for girls, this general picture is juxtaposed against an extremely diverse landscape across Africa with respect to primary school completion as well as retained literacy. Cross-country variation in primary school completion can be partially explained by variations in national per capita income and is highly correlated with cross-country variations in primary completion rates achieved 20 years ago, but we still find surprising variations in educational outcomes, among the poorest countries. Among the 24 sub-Saharan African countries with a purchasing power parity GNI less than $1000, we find a significant variation in both primary completion rates and achieved literacy, suggesting that educational progress is possible even in resource challenged environments. At the same time, our findings are sobering; in many countries, international educational goals are unlikely to be reached by 2015 and learning outcomes are frequently abysmal. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Suggested Citation

  • Cynthia B. Lloyd & Paul Hewett, 2009. "Educational inequalities in the midst of persistent poverty: Diversity across Africa in educational outcomes," Journal of International Development, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 21(8), pages 1137-1151.
  • Handle: RePEc:wly:jintdv:v:21:y:2009:i:8:p:1137-1151
    DOI: 10.1002/jid.1650
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    1. Eric A. Hanushek & Victor Lavy & Kohtaro Hitomi, 2008. "Do Students Care about School Quality? Determinants of Dropout Behavior in Developing Countries," Journal of Human Capital, University of Chicago Press, vol. 2(1), pages 69-105.
    2. Sahn, David E. & Stifel, David C., 2000. "Poverty Comparisons Over Time and Across Countries in Africa," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 28(12), pages 2123-2155, December.
    3. Sudhir Anand & Martin Ravallion, 1993. "Human Development in Poor Countries: On the Role of Private Incomes and Public Services," Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, vol. 7(1), pages 133-150, Winter.
    4. Deon Filmer & Lant Pritchett, 1999. "The Effect of Household Wealth on Educational Attainment: Evidence from 35 Countries," Population and Development Review, The Population Council, Inc., vol. 25(1), pages 85-120.
    5. Mark Montgomery & Michele Gragnolati & Kathleen Burke & Edmundo Paredes, 2000. "Measuring living standards with proxy variables," Demography, Springer;Population Association of America (PAA), vol. 37(2), pages 155-174, May.
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    Cited by:

    1. Ben Crow & Nichole Zlatunich & Brian Fulfrost, 2009. "Mapping global inequalities: Beyond income inequality to multi-dimensional inequalities," Journal of International Development, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 21(8), pages 1051-1065.
    2. Wietzke, Frank-Borge, 2015. "Long-Term Consequences of Colonial Institutions and Human Capital Investments: Sub-National Evidence from Madagascar," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 66(C), pages 293-307.
    3. Olivier Basdevant & Dalmacio Benicio & Yorbol Yakhshilikov, 2012. "Inequalities and Growth in the Southern African Customs Union (SACU) Region," IMF Working Papers 12/290, International Monetary Fund.
    4. Frank-Borge Wietzke, 2015. "Who Is Poorest? An Asset-based Analysis of Multidimensional Wellbeing," Development Policy Review, Overseas Development Institute, vol. 33(1), pages 33-59, January.

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