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Welfare Reform and Children's Living Arrangements

Author

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  • Marianne P. Bitler
  • Jonah B. Gelbach
  • Hilary W. Hoynes

Abstract

Little is known about welfare reform’s effects on family structure and children’s living arrangements, an important focus for reformers. Using March CPS data, we find that state welfare waivers are associated with children being less likely to live with unmarried parents, more likely to live with married parents, and more likely to live with neither parent. Children living with neither parent are living with grandparents or other relatives, or rarely, in foster care. The estimates vary somewhat by children’s race and ethnicity. Due to the limited variation in TANF’s implementation timing across states, we focus on the waiver results.

Suggested Citation

  • Marianne P. Bitler & Jonah B. Gelbach & Hilary W. Hoynes, 2006. "Welfare Reform and Children's Living Arrangements," Journal of Human Resources, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 41(1).
  • Handle: RePEc:uwp:jhriss:v:41:y:2006:i:1:p1-27
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    2. Rosen, Sherwin, 2007. "Studies in Labor Markets," National Bureau of Economic Research Books, University of Chicago Press, number 9780226726304.
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    7. Borjas, George J., 2003. "Welfare reform, labor supply, and health insurance in the immigrant population," Journal of Health Economics, Elsevier, vol. 22(6), pages 933-958, November.
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    Citations

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    Cited by:

    1. Salvador Ortigueira & Nawid Siassi, 2016. "Anti-poverty Income Transfers in the U.S.: A Framework for the Evaluation of Policy Reforms," Working Papers 2016-04, University of Miami, Department of Economics.
    2. Emily E. Wiemers, 2014. "The Effect of Unemployment on Household Composition and Doubling Up," Working Papers 2014_05, University of Massachusetts Boston, Economics Department.
    3. Fisher, Hayley & Zhu, Anna, 2016. "The Effect of Changing Financial Incentives on Repartnering," IZA Discussion Papers 10243, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
    4. Jean Knab & Irv Garfinkel & Sara McLanahan & Emily Moiduddin & Cynthia Osborne, 2007. "The Effects of Welfare and Child Support Policies on the Timing and Incidence of Marriage Following a Nonmarital Birth," Working Papers 898, Princeton University, Woodrow Wilson School of Public and International Affairs, Center for Research on Child Wellbeing..
    5. Moffitt, Robert A. & Phelan, Brian J. & Winkler, Anne E., 2015. "Welfare Rules, Incentives, and Family Structure," IZA Discussion Papers 9127, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
    6. Keith Finlay & David Neumark, 2010. "Is Marriage Always Good for Children?: Evidence from Families Affected by Incarceration," Journal of Human Resources, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 45(4), pages 1046-1088.
    7. Leah K. Lakdawala & David Simon, 2016. "The Intergenerational Consequences of Tobacco Policy," Working papers 2016-27, University of Connecticut, Department of Economics.
    8. Hilary Hoynes & Doug Miller & David Simon, 2015. "Income, the Earned Income Tax Credit, and Infant Health," American Economic Journal: Economic Policy, American Economic Association, pages 172-211.
    9. Shelly Lundberg & Robert A. Pollak, 2007. "The American Family and Family Economics," Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, vol. 21(2), pages 3-26, Spring.
    10. Marchand, J. & Smeeding, T., 2016. "Poverty and Aging," Handbook of the Economics of Population Aging, Elsevier.
      • Marchand, Joseph & Smeeding, Timothy, 2016. "Poverty and Aging," Working Papers 2016-11, University of Alberta, Department of Economics, revised 20 Nov 2016.
    11. Orsini, Chiara, 2010. "Changing the way the elderly live: Evidence from the home health care market in the United States," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, pages 142-152.
    12. Maya Rossin-Slater, 2017. "Signing Up New Fathers: Do Paternity Establishment Initiatives Increase Marriage, Parental Investment, and Child Well-Being?," American Economic Journal: Applied Economics, American Economic Association, vol. 9(2), pages 93-130, April.
    13. repec:pri:crcwel:wp07-10-ff is not listed on IDEAS
    14. Christine Ho, 2014. "Welfare-to-Work Reform and Intergenerational Support: Grandmothers’ Response to the 1996 PRWORA," Working Papers 12-2014, Singapore Management University, School of Economics.
    15. Dunifon, Rachel & Hynes, Kathryn & Peters, H. Elizabeth, 2006. "Welfare reform and child well-being," Children and Youth Services Review, Elsevier, vol. 28(11), pages 1273-1292, November.
    16. repec:msl:workng:1008 is not listed on IDEAS
    17. Herbst, Chris M., 2014. "Are Parental Welfare Work Requirements Good for Disadvantaged Children? Evidence from Age-of-Youngest-Child Exemptions," IZA Discussion Papers 8485, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
    18. Purtell, Kelly M. & Gershoff, Elizabeth T. & Aber, J. Lawrence, 2012. "Low income families' utilization of the Federal “Safety Net”: Individual and state-level predictors of TANF and Food Stamp receipt," Children and Youth Services Review, Elsevier, vol. 34(4), pages 713-724.
    19. Emily Wiemers, 2014. "The Effect of Unemployment on Household Composition and Doubling Up," Demography, Springer;Population Association of America (PAA), vol. 51(6), pages 2155-2178, December.
    20. Lucie Schmidt, 2013. "The New Safety Net? Supplemental Security Income after Welfare Reform," Department of Economics Working Papers 2013-07, Department of Economics, Williams College.
    21. Fallesen, Peter, 2016. "Downward spiral: The impact of out-of-home placement on paternal welfare dependency," Children and Youth Services Review, Elsevier, vol. 66(C), pages 45-55.

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