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How Globalized Really is European Trade?


  • T. Huw Edwards


Abstract Using a new set of measures of concentration of trade, I suggest that the opening up of trade to date has been greatly exaggerated. At least judging on the basis of trade concentration, agriculture and service sectors should barely be seen as globalized at all. Contrary to other, recent studies, Europe's main economies lag behind the USA in terms of global openness, and most are behind Japan, Canada and China. The Balkans, Poland and the Czech Republic are near the bottom end of the global openness league table. Since there is a strong correlation between concentration of trade and poor economic performance, this should be of concern to those countries and to the EU.

Suggested Citation

  • T. Huw Edwards, 2007. "How Globalized Really is European Trade?," Spatial Economic Analysis, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 2(3), pages 259-280.
  • Handle: RePEc:taf:specan:v:2:y:2007:i:3:p:259-280 DOI: 10.1080/17421770701550363

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    References listed on IDEAS

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    Cited by:

    1. Krieger-Boden, Christiane & Soltwedel, Rüdiger, 2010. "European economic integration in econometric modelling: Concepts, measures and illustration," Kiel Working Papers 1661, Kiel Institute for the World Economy (IfW).

    More about this item


    Globalization; regional integration; trade; Europe; C4; C49; F1; F10; F15;

    JEL classification:

    • F10 - International Economics - - Trade - - - General
    • F15 - International Economics - - Trade - - - Economic Integration
    • C49 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Econometric and Statistical Methods: Special Topics - - - Other


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