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How globalised really is European trade?



Using a new set of measures of concentration of trade, I suggest that the opening up of trade to date has been greatly exaggerated. At least judging on the basis of trade concentration, agriculture and service sectors should barely be seen as globalised at all. Contrary to other recent studies, Europe's main economies lag behind the USA in terms of global openness, and most are behind Japan, Canada and China. The Balkans, Poland and Czech Republic are near the bottom end of the global openness league table. Since there is a strong correlation between concentration of trade and poor economic performance, this should be of concern to those countries and to the European Union.

Suggested Citation

  • T. Huw Edwards, 2006. "How globalised really is European trade?," Discussion Paper Series 2006_10, Department of Economics, Loughborough University, revised May 2006.
  • Handle: RePEc:lbo:lbowps:2006_10

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Graciela Kaminsky & Saul Lizondo & Carmen M. Reinhart, 1998. "Leading Indicators of Currency Crises," IMF Staff Papers, Palgrave Macmillan, vol. 45(1), pages 1-48, March.
    2. Andrew Berg & Catherine Pattillo, 1999. "Are Currency Crises Predictable? A Test," IMF Staff Papers, Palgrave Macmillan, vol. 46(2), pages 1-1.
    3. Eliasson, Ann-Charlotte & Kreuter, Christof, 2001. "On crisis models: An alternative crisis definition," Research Notes 01-1, Deutsche Bank Research.
    4. Krugman, Paul, 1979. "A Model of Balance-of-Payments Crises," Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 11(3), pages 311-325, August.
    5. Granger, C W J, 1969. "Investigating Causal Relations by Econometric Models and Cross-Spectral Methods," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 37(3), pages 424-438, July.
    6. Dornbusch, Rudiger, 1987. "Collapsing exchange rate regimes," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 27(1-2), pages 71-83, October.
    7. Bengi Kibritcioglu & Bulent Kose & Gamze Ugur, 2001. "A Leading Indicators Approach to the Predictability of Currency," International Finance 0108001, EconWPA, revised 06 Sep 2001.
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    Cited by:

    1. Krieger-Boden, Christiane & Soltwedel, RĂ¼diger, 2010. "European economic integration in econometric modelling: Concepts, measures and illustration," Kiel Working Papers 1661, Kiel Institute for the World Economy (IfW).

    More about this item


    Globalisation; Regional Integration; Trade; Europe.;

    JEL classification:

    • F10 - International Economics - - Trade - - - General
    • F15 - International Economics - - Trade - - - Economic Integration
    • C49 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Econometric and Statistical Methods: Special Topics - - - Other

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