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Interregional Multipliers: Looking Backward, Looking Forward


  • Erik Dietzenbacher


Backward linkages are usually measured using output multipliers as based on the input matrix. Similarly, value-added and import multipliers are derived by additionally using the corresponding primary input coefficients. For measuring forward linkages, input multipliers have been frequently used. Within a 'supply-driven' input-output model, these multipliers are obtained from the output matrix. The present paper extends this notion by taking into account also the final output coefficients. This yields consumption, export and investment multipliers. In an empirical analysis, multipliers are calculated for an intercountry input-output table of six European Union (EU) countries. The multipliers are decomposed into intracountry effects, intercountry spillover effects and intercountry feedback effects. D'habitude, les liens en amont sont mesures a partir des multiplicateurs de production bases sur la matrice des facteurs de production. De la meme maniere, des multiplicateurs de valeur ajoutee et d'importation sont aussi etablis employant les coefficients des facteurs de production primaires correspondants. Afin de mesurer les liens en aval, on emploie souvent des multiplicateurs des facteurs de production. Au sein d'un modele des echanges intersectoriels determine par l'offre, ces multiplacateurs proviennent de la matrice de la production. Cet article cherche a etendre cette notion en tenant compte des coefficients de la production finale. Il en resulte des multiplicateurs de consommation, d'exportation et d'investissement. A partir d'une analyse empirique, des multiplicateurs sont calcules pour un tableau d'echanges intersectoriels de six pays de l'Union europeene (Ue). Les multiplicateurs sont desagreges en effets qui se font au sein d'un meme pays, et en effets de repartition et de redistribution qui se font entre les pays en question. Bereits bestehende Verknupfungen werden gewohnlich mit Hilfe von Ertragsmultiplikatoren gemessen, die sich auf die Aufwandsmatrix stutzen. Mehrwert- und Importmultiplikatoren werden auf ahnliche Art und Weise durch zusatzliche Benutzung entsprechender Koeffizienten des Grundaufwands abgeleitet. Zur Messung voraussichticher Verknupfungen sind oft Aufwandsmultiplikatoren eingesetzt worden. Ineinem 'lieferungsgetriebenen' Aufwands-Ertragsmodell erhielt man Multiplikatoren von der Ertagsmatrix. Der vorliegende Aufsatz erweitert diese Idee, indem er auch den Endertragskoeffizienten mit in Betracht zieht. Dies ergibt Verbrauchs-, Export- und Investierungsmultiplikatoren. In einer empirischen Analyse werden Multiplikatoren fur eine interstaatliche Aufwands-Ertragstabelle von sechs EU Landern berechnet. Die Multiplikatoren werden in innerstaatliche Auswirkungen, interstaatliche Uberlaufsauswirkungen und interstaatliche Ruckkoppelungswirkungen zerlegt.

Suggested Citation

  • Erik Dietzenbacher, 2002. "Interregional Multipliers: Looking Backward, Looking Forward," Regional Studies, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 36(2), pages 125-136.
  • Handle: RePEc:taf:regstd:v:36:y:2002:i:2:p:125-136 DOI: 10.1080/00343400220121918

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    References listed on IDEAS

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    1. Arne J. Nagengast & Robert Stehrer, 2016. "The Great Collapse in Value Added Trade," Review of International Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 24(2), pages 392-421, May.
    2. Malcolm Beynon & Max Munday, 2008. "Stochastic key sector analysis: an application to a regional input–output framework," The Annals of Regional Science, Springer;Western Regional Science Association, vol. 42(4), pages 863-877, December.
    3. Gunnar Lindberg, 2011. "On the appropriate use of (input-output) coefficients to generate non-survey regional input-output tables: Implications for the determination of output multipliers," ERSA conference papers ersa10p800, European Regional Science Association.
    4. João Do Amaral & João Dias & João Lopes, 2012. "A new kind of production and value-added multiplier for assessing the scale and structure effects of demand shocks in input–output frameworks," The Annals of Regional Science, Springer;Western Regional Science Association, vol. 49(1), pages 103-115, August.
    5. Matías Piaggio & Vicent Alcántara Escolano & Emilio Padilla Rosa, 2013. "The materiality of the immaterial. Services sectors and CO2 emissions in Uruguay," Working Papers wpdea1306, Department of Applied Economics at Universitat Autonoma of Barcelona.
    6. Rocchi, Benedetto & Romano, Donato & Hamza, Raid, 2013. "Agriculture reform and food crisis in Syria: Impacts on poverty and inequality," Food Policy, Elsevier, vol. 43(C), pages 190-203.
    7. M. Alejandro Cardenete & Ferran Sancho, 2006. "Missing links in key sector analysis," Economic Systems Research, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 18(3), pages 319-325.
    8. Olczyk, Magdalena, 2011. "Structural changes in the Polish economy - the analysis of input-output," MPRA Paper 33659, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    9. Massón-Guerra, José Luis & Vendrell-Ferrero, Ferran, 2008. "Entrepreneurship Spillover and the determinants of Key Sectors for new business creation: An inter-sectorial approach," MPRA Paper 10748, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    10. Zhang, Youguo, 2013. "The responsibility for carbon emissions and carbon efficiency at the sectoral level: Evidence from China," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 40(C), pages 967-975.
    11. Alejandro CARDENETE & Patricia FUENTES SAGUAR & Clemente POLO, "undated". "Energy System and CO2 emissions: a SAM Analysis," EcoMod2008 23800022, EcoMod.
    12. Massón-Guerra, José Luis, 2008. "The Multipliers and Key Sectors of Entrepreneurship Spillover: An input-output approach," MPRA Paper 10733, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    13. Manuel Alejandro Cardenete & Pierre Boulanger & María del Carmen Delgado & Emanuele Ferrari & Robert M'barek, 2012. "An approach to describe the agri-food and other bio-based sectors in the European Union: Focus on Spain," JRC Working Papers JRC72097, Joint Research Centre (Seville site).
    14. Viccaro, Mauro & Rocchi, Benedetto & Cozzi, Mario & Severino, Marino, 2015. "The socioeconomic impact derived from the oil royalty allocation on regional development," 2015 Fourth Congress, June 11-12, 2015, Ancona, Italy 207861, Italian Association of Agricultural and Applied Economics (AIEAA).
    15. repec:kap:iaecre:v:12:y:2006:i:1:p:91-103 is not listed on IDEAS
    16. Zhang, Youguo, 2010. "Supply-side structural effect on carbon emissions in China," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 32(1), pages 186-193, January.
    17. Jose Pavía & Bernardi Cabrer & Luis Vila, 2006. "Interregional Trade Linkages and the Commercial Role: The Spanish Case," International Advances in Economic Research, Springer;International Atlantic Economic Society, vol. 12(1), pages 91-103, February.
    18. Jha, Veena., 2009. "The effects of fiscal stimulus packages on employment," ILO Working Papers 994338973402676, International Labour Organization.
    19. Zhang, Youguo, 2017. "Interregional carbon emission spillover–feedback effects in China," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 100(C), pages 138-148.
    20. Yan, Junna & Zhao, Tao & Kang, Jidong, 2016. "Sensitivity analysis of technology and supply change for CO2 emission intensity of energy-intensive industries based on input–output model," Applied Energy, Elsevier, vol. 171(C), pages 456-467.
    21. Piaggio, Matías & Alcántara, Vicent & Padilla, Emilio, 2015. "The materiality of the immaterial," Ecological Economics, Elsevier, vol. 110(C), pages 1-10.
    22. Junning Cai & Pingsun Leung, 2004. "Linkage Measures: a Revisit and a Suggested Alternative," Economic Systems Research, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 16(1), pages 63-83.


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