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Symmetry and duality in Levy markets

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  • JosE Fajardo
  • Ernesto Mordecki

Abstract

The aim of this paper is to introduce the notion of symmetry in a Levy market. This notion appears as a particular case of a general known relation between prices of put and call options, of both the European and the American type, which is also reviewed in the paper, and that we call put-call duality. Symmetric Levy markets have the distinctive feature of producing symmetric smile curves, in the log of strike/futures prices. Put-call duality is obtained as a consequence of a change of the risk neutral probability measure through Girsanov's theorem, when considering the discounted and reinvested stock price as the numeraire. Symmetry is defined when a certain law before and after the change of measure through Girsanov's theorem coincides. A parameter characterizing the departure from symmetry is introduced, and a necessary and sufficient condition for symmetry to hold is obtained, in terms of the jump measure of the Levy process, answering a question raised by Carr and Chesney (American put call symmetry, preprint, 1996). Some empirical evidence is shown, supporting that, in general, markets are not symmetric.

Suggested Citation

  • JosE Fajardo & Ernesto Mordecki, 2006. "Symmetry and duality in Levy markets," Quantitative Finance, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 6(3), pages 219-227.
  • Handle: RePEc:taf:quantf:v:6:y:2006:i:3:p:219-227
    DOI: 10.1080/14697680600680068
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    1. Fajardo, José & Farias, Aquiles, 2004. "Generalized Hyperbolic Distributions and Brazilian Data," Brazilian Review of Econometrics, Sociedade Brasileira de Econometria - SBE, vol. 24(2), November.
    2. Eberlein, Ernst & Keller, Ulrich & Prause, Karsten, 1998. "New Insights into Smile, Mispricing, and Value at Risk: The Hyperbolic Model," The Journal of Business, University of Chicago Press, vol. 71(3), pages 371-405, July.
    3. S. G. Kou & Hui Wang, 2004. "Option Pricing Under a Double Exponential Jump Diffusion Model," Management Science, INFORMS, vol. 50(9), pages 1178-1192, September.
    4. Orlin Grabbe, J., 1983. "The pricing of call and put options on foreign exchange," Journal of International Money and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 2(3), pages 239-253, December.
    5. Schroder, Mark, 1999. "Changes of Numeraire for Pricing Futures, Forwards, and Options," Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 12(5), pages 1143-1163.
    6. Merton, Robert C., 1976. "Option pricing when underlying stock returns are discontinuous," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 3(1-2), pages 125-144.
    7. Black, Fischer & Scholes, Myron S, 1973. "The Pricing of Options and Corporate Liabilities," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 81(3), pages 637-654, May-June.
    8. Peter Carr & Helyette Geman, 2002. "The Fine Structure of Asset Returns: An Empirical Investigation," The Journal of Business, University of Chicago Press, vol. 75(2), pages 305-332, April.
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    Citations

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    Cited by:

    1. Tehranchi, Michael R., 2009. "Symmetric martingales and symmetric smiles," Stochastic Processes and their Applications, Elsevier, vol. 119(10), pages 3785-3797, October.
    2. José Fajardo, 2017. "A new factor to explain implied volatility smirk," Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 49(40), pages 4026-4034, August.
    3. José Fajardo & Ernesto Mordecki, 2008. "Symmetry and Time Changed Brownian Motions," IBMEC RJ Economics Discussion Papers 2008-02, Economics Research Group, IBMEC Business School - Rio de Janeiro.
    4. José Fajardo, 2014. "Symmetry and Bates’ rule in Ornstein–Uhlenbeck stochastic volatility models," Decisions in Economics and Finance, Springer;Associazione per la Matematica, vol. 37(2), pages 319-327, October.
    5. Fajardo, José, 2016. "Power Style Contracts Under Asymmetric Lévy Processes," MPRA Paper 71813, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    6. José Fajardo & Ernesto Mordecki, 2014. "Skewness premium with Lévy processes," Quantitative Finance, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 14(9), pages 1619-1626, September.
    7. Rheinländer, Thorsten & Schmutz, Michael, 2013. "Self-dual continuous processes," Stochastic Processes and their Applications, Elsevier, vol. 123(5), pages 1765-1779.
    8. Fajardo, José & Mordecki, Ernesto, 2010. "Market symmetry in time-changed Brownian models," Finance Research Letters, Elsevier, vol. 7(1), pages 53-59, March.
    9. Thorsten Rheinlander & Michael Schmutz, 2012. "Quasi self-dual exponential L\'evy processes," Papers 1201.5132, arXiv.org.
    10. Ilya Molchanov & Michael Schmutz, 2009. "Exchangeability type properties of asset prices," Papers 0901.4914, arXiv.org, revised Apr 2011.
    11. Fajardo, José, 2015. "Barrier style contracts under Lévy processes: An alternative approach," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 53(C), pages 179-187.
    12. Thorsten Rheinlander & Michael Schmutz, 2012. "Self-dual continuous processes," Papers 1201.6516, arXiv.org.
    13. Kais Hamza & Fima C. Klebaner & Zinoviy Landsman & Ying-Oon Tan, 2014. "Option Pricing for Symmetric L\'evy Returns with Applications," Papers 1402.1554, arXiv.org.
    14. repec:sbe:breart:v:28:y:2008:i:1:a:1519 is not listed on IDEAS

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