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Dynamic Factor Models With Macro, Frailty, and Industry Effects for U.S. Default Counts: The Credit Crisis of 2008

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  • Siem Jan Koopman
  • André Lucas
  • Bernd Schwaab

Abstract

We develop a high-dimensional, nonlinear, and non-Gaussian dynamic factor model for the decomposition of systematic default risk conditions into latent components for (1) macroeconomic/financial risk, (2) autonomous default dynamics (frailty), and (3) industry-specific effects. We analyze discrete U.S. corporate default counts together with macroeconomic and financial variables in one unifying framework. We find that approximately 35% of default rate variation is due to systematic and industry factors. Approximately one-third of this systematic variation is captured by the macroeconomic and financial factors. The remainder is captured by frailty (40%) and industry (25%) effects. The default-specific effects are particularly relevant before and during times of financial turbulence. We detect a build-up of systematic risk over the period preceding the 2008 credit crisis. This article has online supplementary material.

Suggested Citation

  • Siem Jan Koopman & André Lucas & Bernd Schwaab, 2012. "Dynamic Factor Models With Macro, Frailty, and Industry Effects for U.S. Default Counts: The Credit Crisis of 2008," Journal of Business & Economic Statistics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 30(4), pages 521-532, May.
  • Handle: RePEc:taf:jnlbes:v:30:y:2012:i:4:p:521-532
    DOI: 10.1080/07350015.2012.700859
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    1. Duffie, Darrell & Saita, Leandro & Wang, Ke, 2007. "Multi-period corporate default prediction with stochastic covariates," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 83(3), pages 635-665, March.
    2. Darrell Duffie & Andreas Eckner & Guillaume Horel & Leandro Saita, 2009. "Frailty Correlated Default," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 64(5), pages 2089-2123, October.
    3. Lucia Alessi & Matteo Barigozzi & Marco Capasso, 2007. "A Robust Criterion for Determining the Number of Static Factors in Approximate Factor Models," LEM Papers Series 2007/19, Laboratory of Economics and Management (LEM), Sant'Anna School of Advanced Studies, Pisa, Italy.
    4. Jushan Bai & Serena Ng, 2002. "Determining the Number of Factors in Approximate Factor Models," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 70(1), pages 191-221, January.
    5. Sanjiv R. Das & Darrell Duffie & Nikunj Kapadia & Leandro Saita, 2007. "Common Failings: How Corporate Defaults Are Correlated," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 62(1), pages 93-117, February.
    6. Durbin, James & Koopman, Siem Jan, 2012. "Time Series Analysis by State Space Methods," OUP Catalogue, Oxford University Press, edition 2, number 9780199641178.
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    Citations

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    Cited by:

    1. Campolieti, Michele & Gefang, Deborah & Koop, Gary, 2014. "A new look at variation in employment growth in Canada: The role of industry, provincial, national and external factors," Journal of Economic Dynamics and Control, Elsevier, vol. 41(C), pages 257-275.
    2. Schwaab, Bernd & Koopman, Siem Jan & Lucas, André, 2014. "Nowcasting and forecasting global financial sector stress and credit market dislocation," International Journal of Forecasting, Elsevier, vol. 30(3), pages 741-758.
    3. Philip Vermeulen, 2012. "Bank dependence and investment during the financial crisis," Research Bulletin, European Central Bank, vol. 17, pages 12-14.
    4. Simone Manganelli, 2012. "The impact of the Securities Markets Programme," Research Bulletin, European Central Bank, vol. 17, pages 2-5.
    5. Paolo Giudici & Laura Parisi, 2015. "Modeling Systemic Risk with Correlated Stochastic Processes," DEM Working Papers Series 110, University of Pavia, Department of Economics and Management.
    6. Bernd Schwaab & Siem Jan Koopman & André Lucas, 2017. "Global Credit Risk: World, Country and Industry Factors," Journal of Applied Econometrics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 32(2), pages 296-317, March.
    7. Paolo Giudici & Laura Parisi, 2016. "Bail in or Bail out? The Atlante example from a systemic risk perspective," DEM Working Papers Series 124, University of Pavia, Department of Economics and Management.
    8. André Lucas & Bernd Schwaab & Xin Zhang, 2017. "Modeling Financial Sector Joint Tail Risk in the Euro Area," Journal of Applied Econometrics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 32(1), pages 171-191, January.
    9. Agosto, Arianna & Cavaliere, Giuseppe & Kristensen, Dennis & Rahbek, Anders, 2016. "Modeling corporate defaults: Poisson autoregressions with exogenous covariates (PARX)," Journal of Empirical Finance, Elsevier, vol. 38(PB), pages 640-663.
    10. repec:taf:jnlbes:v:35:y:2017:i:3:p:349-358 is not listed on IDEAS
    11. repec:eee:jimfin:v:82:y:2018:i:c:p:1-25 is not listed on IDEAS
    12. Josef Brechler & Vaclav Hausenblas & Zlatuse Komarkova & Miroslav Plasil, 2014. "Similarity and Clustering of Banks: Application to the Credit Exposures of the Czech Banking Sector," Research and Policy Notes 2014/04, Czech National Bank, Research Department.
    13. Michele Campolieti & Deborah Gefang & Gary Koop, 2013. "A new look at variation in employment growth in Canada," Working Papers 26145565, Lancaster University Management School, Economics Department.
    14. repec:pal:jorsoc:v:68:y:2017:i:12:d:10.1057_s41274-017-0189-4 is not listed on IDEAS
    15. Barbara Choroś-Tomczyk & Wolfgang Karl Härdle & Ostap Okhrin, 2013. "CDO Surfaces Dynamics," SFB 649 Discussion Papers SFB649DP2013-032, Sonderforschungsbereich 649, Humboldt University, Berlin, Germany.
    16. Paolo Giudici & Laura Parisi, 2016. "CoRisk: measuring systemic risk through default probability contagion," DEM Working Papers Series 116, University of Pavia, Department of Economics and Management.
    17. Bernd Schwaab, 2012. "Conditional probabilities and contagion measures for euro area sovereign default risk," Research Bulletin, European Central Bank, vol. 17, pages 6-11.
    18. Truong, Chi & Trück, Stefan, 2016. "It’s not now or never: Implications of investment timing and risk aversion on climate adaptation to extreme events," European Journal of Operational Research, Elsevier, vol. 253(3), pages 856-868.
    19. Pedro H. C. Sant’Anna, 2017. "Testing for Uncorrelated Residuals in Dynamic Count Models With an Application to Corporate Bankruptcy," Journal of Business & Economic Statistics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 35(3), pages 349-358, July.
    20. Schwaab, Bernd & Eser, Fabian, 2013. "Assessing asset purchases within the ECB’s securities markets programme," Working Paper Series 1587, European Central Bank.
    21. Eser, Fabian & Schwaab, Bernd, 2016. "Evaluating the impact of unconventional monetary policy measures: Empirical evidence from the ECB׳s Securities Markets Programme," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 119(1), pages 147-167.
    22. Geert Mesters & Bernd Schwaab & Siem Jan Koopman, 2014. "A Dynamic Yield Curve Model with Stochastic Volatility and Non-Gaussian Interactions: An Empirical Study of Non-standard Monetary Policy in the Euro Area," Tinbergen Institute Discussion Papers 14-071/III, Tinbergen Institute.
    23. Andre Lucas & Bernd Schwaab & Xin Zhang, 2013. "Measuring Credit Risk in a Large Banking System: Econometric Modeling and Empirics," Tinbergen Institute Discussion Papers 13-063/IV/DSF56, Tinbergen Institute, revised 13 Oct 2014.
    24. repec:eee:jfinec:v:125:y:2017:i:3:p:454-474 is not listed on IDEAS
    25. Raffaella Calabrese & Johan A. Elkink & Paolo Giudici, 2014. "Measuring Bank Contagion in Europe Using Binary Spatial Regression Models," DEM Working Papers Series 096, University of Pavia, Department of Economics and Management.

    More about this item

    JEL classification:

    • C33 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Multiple or Simultaneous Equation Models; Multiple Variables - - - Models with Panel Data; Spatio-temporal Models
    • G21 - Financial Economics - - Financial Institutions and Services - - - Banks; Other Depository Institutions; Micro Finance Institutions; Mortgages

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