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Evaluating the Role of Subsidy Reform in Addressing Poverty Levels in Malaysia: A CGE Poverty Framework


  • Saeed Solaymani
  • Fatimah Kari
  • Roza Hazly Zakaria


Malaysia as one of the top subsidised countries around the world has launched to reduce subsidies to capture its development goals. This study, therefore, analyses the effects of the subsidy reform on the macroeconomic, welfare and poverty levels of Malaysia by applying a CGE model. The findings suggest that subsidy removal leads to significant falls in both income and consumption of rural, urban and non-citizen households, and consequently decreases their welfare. However, poverty levels among rural households will most likely increase significantly when compared to urban households due to their relatively low level of income compared to other groups.

Suggested Citation

  • Saeed Solaymani & Fatimah Kari & Roza Hazly Zakaria, 2014. "Evaluating the Role of Subsidy Reform in Addressing Poverty Levels in Malaysia: A CGE Poverty Framework," Journal of Development Studies, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 50(4), pages 556-569, April.
  • Handle: RePEc:taf:jdevst:v:50:y:2014:i:4:p:556-569
    DOI: 10.1080/00220388.2013.841888

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Kenneth R. Simler & Channing Arndt, 2007. "Poverty Comparisons With Absolute Poverty Lines Estimated From Survey Data," Review of Income and Wealth, International Association for Research in Income and Wealth, vol. 53(2), pages 275-294, June.
    2. Simler, Kenneth R. & Arndt, Channing, 2006. "Poverty Comparisons with Endogenous Absolute Poverty Lines," 2006 Annual Meeting, August 12-18, 2006, Queensland, Australia 25775, International Association of Agricultural Economists.
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    Cited by:

    1. Tooraj Jamasb & Rabindra Nepal & Govinda R. Timilsina, 2017. "A Quarter Century Effort Yet to Come of Age: A Survey of Electricity Sector Reform in Developing Countries," The Energy Journal, International Association for Energy Economics, vol. 0(Number 3).
    2. Saeed Solaymani & Mehdi Shokrinia, 2016. "Economic and environmental effects of trade liberalization in Malaysia," Journal of Social and Economic Development, Springer;Institute for Social and Economic Change, vol. 18(1), pages 101-120, October.
    3. Lisa Bagnoli & Salvador Bertomeu-Sanchez & Antonio Estache & Maria Vagliasindi, 2021. "Does the ownership of utilities matter for social outcomes? A survey of the evidence for developing countries," ULB Institutional Repository 2013/335116, ULB -- Universite Libre de Bruxelles.
    4. Zahra Zarepour, 2022. "Short- and long-run macroeconomic impacts of the 2010 Iranian energy subsidy reform," SN Business & Economics, Springer, vol. 2(10), pages 1-32, October.
    5. Djoni Hartono & Ahmad Komarulzaman & Tony Irawan & Anda Nugroho, 2020. "Phasing out Energy Subsidies to Improve Energy Mix: A Dead End," Energies, MDPI, vol. 13(9), pages 1-15, May.
    6. Herbert W. V. Hasudungan & Sulthon S. Sabaruddin, 2016. "The Impact of Fiscal Reform on Indonesian Macroeconomy: A CGE Framework," Central European Journal of Economic Modelling and Econometrics, Central European Journal of Economic Modelling and Econometrics, vol. 8(3), pages 181-202, September.
    7. Solaymani, Saeed, 2019. "CO2 emissions patterns in 7 top carbon emitter economies: The case of transport sector," Energy, Elsevier, vol. 168(C), pages 989-1001.
    8. Lisa Bagnoli & Salvador Bertomeu & Antonio Estache & Maria Vagliasindi, 2020. "Are the Poor Better Off with Public or Private Utilities ?A Survey of the Academic Evidence on Developing Economies," Working Papers ECARES 2020-24, ULB -- Universite Libre de Bruxelles.
    9. Li, Yingzhu & Shi, Xunpeng & Su, Bin, 2017. "Economic, social and environmental impacts of fuel subsidies: A revisit of Malaysia," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 110(C), pages 51-61.
    10. Solaymani, Saeed & Kardooni, Roozbeh & Yusoff, Sumiani Binti & Kari, Fatimah, 2015. "The impacts of climate change policies on the transportation sector," Energy, Elsevier, vol. 81(C), pages 719-728.
    11. Solaymani, Saeed, 2021. "Which government supports are beneficial for the transportation subsectors," Energy, Elsevier, vol. 235(C).
    12. Saeed Solaymani, 2018. "Impacts of climate change on food security and agriculture sector in Malaysia," Environment, Development and Sustainability: A Multidisciplinary Approach to the Theory and Practice of Sustainable Development, Springer, vol. 20(4), pages 1575-1596, August.
    13. Saeed Solaymani, 2021. "Energy subsidy reform evaluation research – reviews in Iran," Greenhouse Gases: Science and Technology, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 11(3), pages 520-538, June.
    14. Saeed Solaymani, 2016. "Impacts of energy subsidy reform on poverty and income inequality in Malaysia," Quality & Quantity: International Journal of Methodology, Springer, vol. 50(6), pages 2707-2723, November.
    15. Dong, Huijuan & Dai, Hancheng & Geng, Yong & Fujita, Tsuyoshi & Liu, Zhe & Xie, Yang & Wu, Rui & Fujii, Minoru & Masui, Toshihiko & Tang, Liang, 2017. "Exploring impact of carbon tax on China’s CO2 reductions and provincial disparities," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 77(C), pages 596-603.
    16. Tooraj Jamasb & Rabindra Nepal & Govinda Timilsina & Michael Toman, 2014. "Energy Sector Reform, Economic Efficiency and Poverty Reduction," Discussion Papers Series 529, School of Economics, University of Queensland, Australia.
    17. Jamasb,Tooraj & Nepal,Rabindra & Timilsina,Govinda R., 2015. "A quarter century effort yet to come of age : a survey of power sector reforms in developing countries," Policy Research Working Paper Series 7330, The World Bank.
    18. Mohamed Dahlan Ibrahim & Abdullah Al Mamun & Norasmah Othman & Mohd Nor Hakimin Yusoff & Naresh Kumar Samy & Suria Baba & Ahmad Syakir Junoh Ismail & Tengku Mohd Azizuddin Tuan Mahmood & Nik Nor Hafiz, 2019. "The Development of an Entrepreneurship Index for Low-Income Households," Business Perspectives and Research, , vol. 7(1), pages 16-29, January.
    19. Houcine Boughanmi & Muhammad Aamir Khan, 2019. "Welfare and Distributional Effects of the Energy Subsidy Reform in the Gulf Cooperation Council Countries: The Case of Sultanate of Oman," International Journal of Energy Economics and Policy, Econjournals, vol. 9(1), pages 228-236.

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