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An Exploratory Analysis of Women's Empowerment in India: A Structural Equation Modelling Approach


  • Snigdha Chakrabarti
  • Chaiti Sharmab Biswas


The study is an exercise to explore possible directions of causation of level of women's empowerment, a latent variable, with related factors with the view to identify the causes of slow growth of it in India applying the ‘Structural Equation Modelling' (SEM) method to Third National Family and Health Survey data conducted during 2005--2006. The results recognise the inefficiency of education and employment policies formulated in India for women required to bring about behavioural changes among women to fight against the norms of patriarchal society. Significant regional variations are also observed. Priority should be given to an awareness campaigning programme to change social norms and the spread of education and information systems may play a significant role in doing so. The regulatory authority may involve non-governmental organisations (NGOs) in this context.

Suggested Citation

  • Snigdha Chakrabarti & Chaiti Sharmab Biswas, 2012. "An Exploratory Analysis of Women's Empowerment in India: A Structural Equation Modelling Approach," Journal of Development Studies, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 48(1), pages 164-180, May.
  • Handle: RePEc:taf:jdevst:v:48:y:2012:i:1:p:164-180
    DOI: 10.1080/00220388.2011.615920

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    References listed on IDEAS

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    8. Subramanian, S. & Deaton, A., 1990. "Gender Effects In Indian Consumption Patterns," Papers 147, Princeton, Woodrow Wilson School - Development Studies.
    9. John Gibson, 1997. "Testing for boy-girl discrimination with household expenditure data: results for Papua New Guinea," Applied Economics Letters, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 4(10), pages 643-646.
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    11. Kingdon, Geeta Gandhi, 2005. "Where Has All the Bias Gone? Detecting Gender Bias in the Intrahousehold Allocation of Educational Expenditure," Economic Development and Cultural Change, University of Chicago Press, vol. 53(2), pages 409-451, January.
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    Cited by:

    1. Yount, Kathryn M. & Dijkerman, Sally & Zureick-Brown, Sarah & VanderEnde, Kristin E., 2014. "Women's empowerment and generalized anxiety in Minya, Egypt," Social Science & Medicine, Elsevier, vol. 106(C), pages 185-193.
    2. Clémentine Sadania, 2016. "Working and Women’s Empowerment in the Egyptian Household: The Type of Work and Location Matter," Working Papers halshs-01525220, HAL.

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