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Transformation of the Rural Economy in the Philippines, 1988--2006


  • Charity Gay Ramos
  • Jonna Estudillo
  • Yasuyuki Sawada
  • Keijiro Otsuka


This research explores the changing structure of the rural economy in the Philippines from 1988 to 2006. We found that the expansion and upgrade of infrastructure such as electricity and roads and investment in secondary and tertiary education are important factors that induced the economic transformation of the rural economy. The importance of higher education as an entry requirement to the nonfarm labor market has declined over time, indicating that the rural nonfarm sector has been increasingly providing employment opportunities to the unskilled and the uneducated, who form the bulk of the rural poor.

Suggested Citation

  • Charity Gay Ramos & Jonna Estudillo & Yasuyuki Sawada & Keijiro Otsuka, 2012. "Transformation of the Rural Economy in the Philippines, 1988--2006," Journal of Development Studies, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 48(11), pages 1629-1648, November.
  • Handle: RePEc:taf:jdevst:v:48:y:2012:i:11:p:1629-1648
    DOI: 10.1080/00220388.2012.716151

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    References listed on IDEAS

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    Cited by:

    1. Nandika S. Kumanayake & Jonna P. Estudillo & Keijiro Otsuka, 2014. "Changing Sources of Household Income, Poverty, and Sectoral Inequality in Sri Lanka, 1990–2006," The Developing Economies, Institute of Developing Economies, vol. 52(1), pages 26-51, March.
    2. Katsushi S. Imai & Bilal Malaeb & Fabrizio Bresciani, 2016. "Remittances, Growth and Poverty Reduction in Asia - A Critical Review of the Literature and the New Evidence from Cross-country Panel Data," Discussion Paper Series DP2016-28, Research Institute for Economics & Business Administration, Kobe University.

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