IDEAS home Printed from
   My bibliography  Save this article

Inflation Dynamics and its Sources in the Ottoman Empire: 1586-1913


  • Hakan Berument
  • Asli Gunay


This study examines the dynamics and determinants of inflation in the Ottoman Empire during the 1586-1913 period. There are two possible reasons for inflation: fiscal expansion and monetary expansion, which could be generated through the debasement of local currency (Akce). We used a set of political and structural variables in order to explain the change in inflation dynamics. In particular, we considered the war years, periods of Ottoman history that show different characteristics (the slow-down period, the recession period and the break-up period) and the period of constitutional monarchy. Moreover, we tested whether the inflation process was the same for each sultan and whether each sultan's behavior during the first year was different from the rest of his reign. The empirical evidence reported here suggests that war accelerated inflation as expected and fiscal expansion rather than the debasement of the Akce was the main reason for inflation. Moreover, the slow-down, the recession and the break-up periods affected inflation positively; both fiscal expansion and the debasement of the Akce were seen in these three periods as sources of inflation. While employing different inflationary policies during his reign, each sultan accelerated inflation in the first year of his reign by the debasement of the Akce or by fiscal expansion. Last, the constitutional monarchy period had a significant positive effect on inflation although fiscal expansion, rather than the debasement of the Akce, was the source of inflation during this period.

Suggested Citation

  • Hakan Berument & Asli Gunay, 2007. "Inflation Dynamics and its Sources in the Ottoman Empire: 1586-1913," International Review of Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 21(2), pages 207-245.
  • Handle: RePEc:taf:irapec:v:21:y:2007:i:2:p:207-245
    DOI: 10.1080/02692170701189102

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL:
    Download Restriction: Access to full text is restricted to subscribers.

    File URL:
    LibKey link: if access is restricted and if your library uses this service, LibKey will redirect you to where you can use your library subscription to access this item

    As the access to this document is restricted, you may want to search for a different version of it.

    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Alesina, Alberto & Sachs, Jeffrey, 1988. "Political Parties and the Business Cycle in the United States, 1948-1984," Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 20(1), pages 63-82, February.
    2. Hibbs, Douglas A., 1977. "Political Parties and Macroeconomic Policy," American Political Science Review, Cambridge University Press, vol. 71(4), pages 1467-1487, December.
    3. Alberto Alesina & Nouriel Roubini, 1992. "Political Cycles in OECD Economies," Review of Economic Studies, Oxford University Press, vol. 59(4), pages 663-688.
    4. Niall Ferguson, 1996. "Constraints and room for manoeuvre in the German inflation of the early 1920s," Economic History Review, Economic History Society, vol. 49(4), pages 635-666, November.
    5. Roubini, Nouriel & Sachs, Jeffrey D., 1989. "Political and economic determinants of budget deficits in the industrial democracies," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 33(5), pages 903-933, May.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    Most related items

    These are the items that most often cite the same works as this one and are cited by the same works as this one.
    1. Efthyvoulou, Georgios, 2011. "Political cycles under external economic constraints: Evidence from Cyprus," Journal of Economics and Business, Elsevier, vol. 63(6), pages 638-662.
    2. Paola Assael & Felipe Larraín, 1994. "El Ciclo Político-económico: Teoría, Evidencia y Extensión para una Economía Abierta," Latin American Journal of Economics-formerly Cuadernos de Economía, Instituto de Economía. Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile., vol. 31(92), pages 87-114.
    3. Alberto Alesina & Gerald D. Cohen & Nouriel Roubini, 1992. "Macroeconomic Policy And Elections In Oecd Democracies," Economics and Politics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 4(1), pages 1-30, March.
    4. Castro, Vítor & Martins, Rodrigo, 2018. "Politically driven cycles in fiscal policy: In depth analysis of the functional components of government expenditures," European Journal of Political Economy, Elsevier, vol. 55(C), pages 44-64.
    5. Wisniewski, Tomasz Piotr, 2016. "Is there a link between politics and stock returns? A literature survey," International Review of Financial Analysis, Elsevier, vol. 47(C), pages 15-23.
    6. Niklas Potrafke, 2006. "Parties Matter in Allocating Expenditures: Evidence from Germany," Discussion Papers of DIW Berlin 652, DIW Berlin, German Institute for Economic Research.
    7. Agarwal, Vikas & Aslan, Hadiye & Huang, Lixin & Ren, Honglin, 2021. "Political uncertainty and household stock market participation," CFR Working Papers 21-06, University of Cologne, Centre for Financial Research (CFR).
    8. Andrikopoulos, Andreas A. & Prodromidis, Kyprianos P. & Serletis, Apostolos, 1998. "Electoral and Partisan Cycle Regularities: A Cointegration Test," Journal of Policy Modeling, Elsevier, vol. 20(2), pages 119-140, April.
    9. Yaser Abolghasemi & Stanko Dimitrov, 2021. "Determining the causality between U.S. presidential prediction markets and global financial markets," International Journal of Finance & Economics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 26(3), pages 4534-4556, July.
    10. Solomon Abayomi Olakojo, 2020. "A Markov‐switching analysis of Nigeria's business cycles: Are election cycles important?," African Development Review, African Development Bank, vol. 32(1), pages 67-79, March.
    11. Henry Aray, 2016. "Partisan Alignment Effects on Total Factor Productivity," Regional Studies, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 50(1), pages 154-167, January.
    12. Lami, Endrit & Imami, Drini & Pugh, Geoffrey & Hashi, Iraj, 2021. "Fiscal performance and elections in the context of a transition economy," Economic Systems, Elsevier, vol. 45(2).
    13. Blomberg, S. Brock & Hess, Gregory D., 2003. "Is the political business cycle for real?," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 87(5-6), pages 1091-1121, May.
    14. Endrit Lami & Drini Imami, 2013. "Searching for Political Fiscal Cycles in Hungary," Contemporary Economics, University of Economics and Human Sciences in Warsaw., vol. 7(4), December.
    15. Kouvavas, Omiros, 2013. "Political Budget Cycles Revisited, the Case for Social Capital," MPRA Paper 57504, University Library of Munich, Germany, revised 15 Sep 2013.
    16. Seitz, Helmut, 2000. "Fiscal Policy, Deficits and Politics of Subnational Governments: The Case of the German Laender," Public Choice, Springer, vol. 102(3-4), pages 183-218, March.
    17. Bülent Köksal & Ahmet Çalışkan, 2012. "Political Business Cycles and Partisan Politics: Evidence from a Developing Economy," Economics and Politics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 24(2), pages 182-199, July.
    18. Chun-Ping Chang & Yoonbai Kim & Yung-hsiang Ying, 2009. "Economics and politics in the United States: a state-level investigation," Journal of Economic Policy Reform, Taylor and Francis Journals, vol. 12(4), pages 343-354.
    19. Reichenvater, Arno, 2007. "Business Cycles, Political Incentives and the Macroeconomy: Comparison of Models," MPRA Paper 5527, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    20. Imami, Drini & Lami, Endrit & Pojani, Dorina, 2022. "Informal construction as political currency: A theory of ‘election-driven informality’," Land Use Policy, Elsevier, vol. 112(C).


    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:taf:irapec:v:21:y:2007:i:2:p:207-245. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: . General contact details of provider: .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a bibliographic reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: Chris Longhurst (email available below). General contact details of provider: .

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.