Asset pricing implications of benchmarking: a two-factor CAPM
The paper considers the equilibrium effects of an institutional investor whose performance is benchmarked to an index. In a partial equilibrium setting, the objective of the institutional investor is modelled as the maximization of expected utility (an increasing and concave function, in order to accommodate risk aversion) of final wealth minus a benchmark. In equilibrium this optimal strategy gives rise to the two-beta CAPM: together with the market beta a new risk-factor (termed active management risk) is brought into the analysis. This new beta is defined as the normalized (to the benchmark's variance) covariance between the asset excess return and the excess return of the market over the benchmark index. The empirical test supports the model's predictions. The cross-section return on the active management risk is positive and significant, especially after 1990, when institutional investors became the representative agent of the market.
Volume (Year): 9 (2003)
Issue (Month): 4 ()
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