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Asset pricing implications of benchmarking: a two-factor CAPM

Author

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  • Juan-Pedro Gomez
  • Fernando Zapatero

Abstract

The paper considers the equilibrium effects of an institutional investor whose performance is benchmarked to an index. In a partial equilibrium setting, the objective of the institutional investor is modelled as the maximization of expected utility (an increasing and concave function, in order to accommodate risk aversion) of final wealth minus a benchmark. In equilibrium this optimal strategy gives rise to the two-beta CAPM: together with the market beta a new risk-factor (termed active management risk) is brought into the analysis. This new beta is defined as the normalized (to the benchmark's variance) covariance between the asset excess return and the excess return of the market over the benchmark index. The empirical test supports the model's predictions. The cross-section return on the active management risk is positive and significant, especially after 1990, when institutional investors became the representative agent of the market.

Suggested Citation

  • Juan-Pedro Gomez & Fernando Zapatero, 2003. "Asset pricing implications of benchmarking: a two-factor CAPM," The European Journal of Finance, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 9(4), pages 343-357.
  • Handle: RePEc:taf:eurjfi:v:9:y:2003:i:4:p:343-357
    DOI: 10.1080/1351847021000025768
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    1. Diane Del Guercio & Paula A. Tkac, 2000. "The determinants of the flow of funds of managed portfolios: mutual funds versus pension funds," FRB Atlanta Working Paper 2000-21, Federal Reserve Bank of Atlanta.
    2. Errunza, Vihang & Losq, Etienne, 1985. " International Asset Pricing under Mild Segmentation: Theory and Test," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 40(1), pages 105-124, March.
    3. Suleyman Basak & Alex Shapiro & Lucie Teplá, 2006. "Risk Management with Benchmarking," Management Science, INFORMS, vol. 52(4), pages 542-557, April.
    4. C. J. Adcock & E. A. Clark, 1999. "Beta lives - some statistical perspectives on the capital asset pricing model," The European Journal of Finance, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 5(3), pages 213-224.
    5. Chen, Nai-Fu & Roll, Richard & Ross, Stephen A, 1986. "Economic Forces and the Stock Market," The Journal of Business, University of Chicago Press, vol. 59(3), pages 383-403, July.
    6. Gibbons, Michael R & Ross, Stephen A & Shanken, Jay, 1989. "A Test of the Efficiency of a Given Portfolio," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 57(5), pages 1121-1152, September.
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    Citations

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    Cited by:

    1. Suleyman Basak & Anna Pavlova & Alexander Shapiro, 2007. "Optimal Asset Allocation and Risk Shifting in Money Management," Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 20(5), pages 1583-1621, 2007 21.
    2. Alexander, Gordon J. & Baptista, Alexandre M., 2010. "Active portfolio management with benchmarking: A frontier based on alpha," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 34(9), pages 2185-2197, September.
    3. Alexander, Gordon J. & Baptista, Alexandre M., 2011. "Portfolio selection with mental accounts and delegation," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 35(10), pages 2637-2656, October.
    4. Chiang, I-Hsuan Ethan, 2015. "Modern portfolio management with conditioning information," Journal of Empirical Finance, Elsevier, vol. 33(C), pages 114-134.
    5. Ferson, Wayne E., 2013. "Investment Performance: A Review and Synthesis," Handbook of the Economics of Finance, Elsevier.
    6. Suleyman Basak & Alex Shapiro & Lucie Teplá, 2006. "Risk Management with Benchmarking," Management Science, INFORMS, vol. 52(4), pages 542-557, April.
    7. repec:abd:kauiea:v:29:y:2016:i:2:no:3:p:37-54 is not listed on IDEAS
    8. Syed ali, Raza & Syed tehseen, jawaid & Imtiaz, arif & Fahim, qazi, 2011. "Validity of capital asset pricing model: evidence from Karachi stock exchange," MPRA Paper 32737, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    9. JULES H. van BINSBERGEN & MICHAEL W. BRANDT & RALPH S. J. KOIJEN, 2008. "Optimal Decentralized Investment Management," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 63(4), pages 1849-1895, August.
    10. Basak, Suleyman & Pavlova, Anna & Shapiro, Alexander, 2008. "Offsetting the implicit incentives: Benefits of benchmarking in money management," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 32(9), pages 1883-1893, September.
    11. Gomez, Juan-Pedro, 2007. "The impact of keeping up with the Joneses behavior on asset prices and portfolio choice," Finance Research Letters, Elsevier, vol. 4(2), pages 95-103, June.
    12. Agarwal, Vikas & Gómez, Juan-Pedro & Priestley, Richard, 2012. "Management compensation and market timing under portfolio constraints," Journal of Economic Dynamics and Control, Elsevier, vol. 36(10), pages 1600-1625.
    13. Cuoco, Domenico & Kaniel, Ron, 2011. "Equilibrium prices in the presence of delegated portfolio management," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 101(2), pages 264-296, August.
    14. Alexander, Gordon J. & Baptista, Alexandre M., 2008. "Active portfolio management with benchmarking: Adding a value-at-risk constraint," Journal of Economic Dynamics and Control, Elsevier, vol. 32(3), pages 779-820, March.
    15. Baptista, Alexandre M., 2008. "Optimal delegated portfolio management with background risk," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 32(6), pages 977-985, June.

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