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Size determinants of women-owned businesses: choice or barriers to resources?


  • Nancy M. Carter
  • Kathleen R. Allen


Although one of the fastest growing segments of the US economy, women-owned Businesses still lag behind men-owned businesses in size as measured by sales and income. This study examines women-owned businesses in the adolescent stage of their life cycle to determine whether firms that are larger than the typical women-owned businesses are so because their owner's lifestyle intentions and choice differ or because size is linked directly to the resources that the entrepreneurs control. The results indicate that having access to financial resources and emphasizing the financial aspects of the business overwhelm the effects of the entrepreneur's lifestyle intention or choice on their chances for having large businesses.

Suggested Citation

  • Nancy M. Carter & Kathleen R. Allen, 1997. "Size determinants of women-owned businesses: choice or barriers to resources?," Entrepreneurship & Regional Development, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 9(3), pages 211-220, January.
  • Handle: RePEc:taf:entreg:v:9:y:1997:i:3:p:211-220
    DOI: 10.1080/08985629700000012

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    Cited by:

    1. Susan Coleman & Alicia M. Robb, 2011. "Financing Strategies of New Technology-based Firms," Review of Economics & Finance, Better Advances Press, Canada, vol. 1, pages 01-18, August.
    2. Fons Trompenaars & Madeleine van der Steege & Riana Schreuders, 2014. "Collaborating to Identify the Personal and Business Dilemmas of Successful Women Entrepreneurs," Working Papers 2014/10, Maastricht School of Management.
    3. Piras, Claudia & Reimao, Maira & Cutura, Jozefina & Frickenstein, Judith & Ellis, Amanda N. & Perez, Ane & Orlando, María Beatriz & De Castro, Orsi & Muñoz Boudet, Ana Maria, 2020. "Women's Economic Opportunities in the Formal Private Sector in Latin America and the Caribbean: A Focus on Entrepreneurship," IDB Publications (Books), Inter-American Development Bank, number 238, December.
    4. Katherina Kuschel, 2019. "Women Founders in the Technology Industry: The Startup-Relatedness of the Decision to Become a Mother," Administrative Sciences, MDPI, Open Access Journal, vol. 9(2), pages 1-17, April.
    5. Guzman, Jorge & Kacperczyk, Aleksandra, 2018. "Gender Gap in Entrepreneurship," SocArXiv z5he2, Center for Open Science.
    6. Paglia, John K. & Harjoto, Maretno A., 2014. "The effects of private equity and venture capital on sales and employment growth in small and medium-sized businesses," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 47(C), pages 177-197.
    7. Amanda N. Ellis & María Beatriz Orlando & Ana Maria Muñoz Boudet & Claudia Piras & Maira Reimao & Jozefina Cutura & Judith Frickenstein & Ane Perez & Orsi de Castro, 2010. "Women's Economic Opportunities in the Formal Private Sector in Latin America and the Caribbean: A Focus on Entrepreneurship," IDB Publications (Books), Inter-American Development Bank, number 17078, February.
    8. Leszczyński Dariusz, 2016. "Exploration of Key Success Factors that Influence Business Performance: The Experiences of Women Micro-entrepreneurs from Mazovia Voivodeship of Poland," International Journal of Management and Economics, Warsaw School of Economics, Collegium of World Economy, vol. 51(1), pages 63-89, September.
    9. Neema Mori, 2015. "Access to Business Development Support Services and Performance of Youth-Owned Enterprises in Tanzania," Journal of Entrepreneurship, Management and Innovation, Fundacja Upowszechniająca Wiedzę i Naukę "Cognitione", vol. 11(2), pages 57-81.
    10. Tansel Yilmazer & Holly Schrank, 2010. "The Use of Owner Resources in Small and Family Owned Businesses: Literature Review and Future Research Directions," Journal of Family and Economic Issues, Springer, vol. 31(4), pages 399-413, December.
    11. Desislava I. Yordanova, 2008. "Gender Effects on Performance in Bulgarian Private Enterprises," Working Papers 0806, Departament Empresa, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, revised Oct 2008.
    12. Dominique BONET FERNANDEZ & Marie-José SCOTTO & Bruno FISCHER, 2014. "Entreprendre en France ? Les motivations des femmes," Working Papers 2014-211, Department of Research, Ipag Business School.
    13. Malin Malmström & Jeaneth Johansson & Joakim Wincent, 2017. "Gender Stereotypes and Venture Support Decisions: How Governmental Venture Capitalists Socially Construct Entrepreneurs’ Potential," Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, , vol. 41(5), pages 833-860, September.
    14. repec:dsr:wpaper:25 is not listed on IDEAS
    15. Becker-Blease, John R. & Sohl, Jeffrey E., 2007. "Do women-owned businesses have equal access to angel capital?," Journal of Business Venturing, Elsevier, vol. 22(4), pages 503-521, July.

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