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Military Expenditure And Granger Causality: A Critical Review

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  • J. Paul Dunne
  • Ron Smith

Abstract

A large literature has used tests for Granger (1969) non-causality, GNC, to examine the interaction of military spending with the economy. Such tests answer a specific although quite limited question: can one reject the null hypothesis that one variable does not help predict another? If one can reject, there is said to be Granger causality, GC. Although the limitations of GNC tests are well known, they are often not emphasised in the applied literature and so may be forgotten. This paper considers the econometric and methodological issues involved and illustrates them with data for the US and other countries. There are three main issues. First, the tests may not be informative about the substantive issue, the interaction of military expenditure and the economy, since Granger causality does not correspond to the usual notion of economic causality. To determine the relationship of the two notions of causality requires an identified structural model. Second, the tests are very sensitive to specification. GNC testing is usually done in the context of a vector autoregression, VAR, and the test results are sensitive to the variables and deterministic terms included in the VAR, lag length, sample or observation window used, treatment of integration and cointegration and level of significance. Statistical criteria may not be very informative about these choices. Third, since the parameters are not structural, the test results may not be stable over different time periods or different countries.

Suggested Citation

  • J. Paul Dunne & Ron Smith, 2010. "Military Expenditure And Granger Causality: A Critical Review," Defence and Peace Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 21(5-6), pages 427-441.
  • Handle: RePEc:taf:defpea:v:21:y:2010:i:5-6:p:427-441
    DOI: 10.1080/10242694.2010.501185
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    Citations

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    Cited by:

    1. Devi Prasad DASH & Debi Prasad BAL & Manoranjan SAHOO, 2016. "Nexus between defense expenditure and economic growth in BRIC economies: An empirical investigation," Theoretical and Applied Economics, Asociatia Generala a Economistilor din Romania - AGER, vol. 0(1(606), S), pages 89-102, Spring.
    2. Bove Vincenzo & Elia Leandro & Pelliccia Marco, 2016. "Centrality in Trade Networks and Investment in Security," Peace Economics, Peace Science, and Public Policy, De Gruyter, vol. 22(1), pages 27-39, January.
    3. Alptekin, Aynur & Levine, Paul, 2012. "Military expenditure and economic growth: A meta-analysis," European Journal of Political Economy, Elsevier, vol. 28(4), pages 636-650.
    4. Vincenzo Bove & Roberto Nisticò, 2014. "Coups d’état and defense spending: a counterfactual analysis," Public Choice, Springer, vol. 161(3), pages 321-344, December.
    5. Vincenzo Bove & Leandro Elia & Petros G. Sekeris, 2014. "US Security Strategy and the Gains from Bilateral Trade," Review of International Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 22(5), pages 863-885, November.
    6. repec:taf:defpea:v:28:y:2017:i:1:p:65-90 is not listed on IDEAS
    7. J Paul Dunne, 2011. "Military Keynesianism: An Assessment," Working Papers 1106, Department of Accounting, Economics and Finance, Bristol Business School, University of the West of England, Bristol.
    8. Kollias, Christos & Paleologou, Suzanna-Maria, 2013. "Guns, highways and economic growth in the United States," Economic Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 30(C), pages 449-455.
    9. Adem Y. Elveren, 2012. "Military Spending and Income Inequality:Evidence on Cointegration and Causality for Turkey,1963--2007," Defence and Peace Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 23(3), pages 289-301, April.
    10. Andreou Andreas S. & Zombanakis George A. & Migiakis Petros M., 2013. "On Defence Expenditure Reduction: Balancing Between Austerity and Security in Greece," Peace Economics, Peace Science, and Public Policy, De Gruyter, vol. 19(3), pages 437-458, December.
    11. Bove, Vincenzo & Nisticò, Roberto, 2014. "Military in politics and budgetary allocations," Journal of Comparative Economics, Elsevier, vol. 42(4), pages 1065-1078.
    12. repec:taf:defpea:v:27:y:2016:i:5:p:609-625 is not listed on IDEAS
    13. Christopher Coyne, 2015. "Lobotomizing the defense brain," The Review of Austrian Economics, Springer;Society for the Development of Austrian Economics, vol. 28(4), pages 371-396, December.
    14. Abdulnasser Hatemi-J & Tsangyao Chang & Wen-Yi Chen & Feng-Li Lin & Rangan Gupta, 2015. "Asymmetric Granger Causality between Military Expenditures and Economic Growth in Top Six Defense Suppliers," Working Papers 201565, University of Pretoria, Department of Economics.
    15. Christos Kollias & Suzanna-Maria Paleologou & Panayiotis Tzeremes & Nickolaos Tzeremes, 2017. "Defence expenditure and economic growth in Latin American countries: evidence from linear and nonlinear causality tests," Latin American Economic Review, Springer;Centro de Investigaciòn y Docencia Económica (CIDE), vol. 26(1), pages 1-25, December.
    16. Yang, Heewon & Hong, Chanyoung & Jung, Sungmoon & Lee, Jeong-Dong, 2015. "Arms or butter: The economic effect of an increase in military expenditure," Journal of Policy Modeling, Elsevier, vol. 37(4), pages 596-615.
    17. Julien Malizard, 2013. "Opportunity Cost Of Defense: An Evaluation In The Case Of France," Defence and Peace Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 24(3), pages 247-259, June.
    18. Ünal Töngür & Adem Yavuz Elveren, 2016. "The impact of military spending and income inequality on economic growth in Turkey," Defence and Peace Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 27(3), pages 433-452, June.
    19. W. Robert J. Alexander, 2013. "The Defence-Debt Nexus: Evidence From The High-Income Members Of Nato," Defence and Peace Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 24(2), pages 133-145, April.
    20. Malizard, Julien, 2015. "Does military expenditure crowd out private investment? A disaggregated perspective for the case of France," Economic Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 46(C), pages 44-52.
    21. repec:taf:defpea:v:28:y:2017:i:6:p:703-718 is not listed on IDEAS
    22. Vincenzo Bove & Jennifer Brauner, 2016. "The demand for military expenditure in authoritarian regimes," Defence and Peace Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 27(5), pages 609-625, September.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    Military spending; Economic growth; Causality; VAR;

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