IDEAS home Printed from
   My bibliography  Save this article

The long and short of money: short-run dynamics within a structural model


  • Martin Schmidt


Empirical examinations into aggregate money demand functions, generally, incorporate a monetary aggregate as the dependent variable. While this custom may be inefficient, it does not create any new difficulties for estimating the demand function's long-run parameters, as money supply would equal money demand. The short-run estimates, however, are not as fortunate. As the monetary aggregate is a measure of supply and not demand, one needs to tease out the short-run responses associated with money demand changes with those which are associated with monetary supply shocks. The present article, therefore, proposes a more complete representation of monetary sector behaviour and in doing so, finds significant support for the so-called buffer stock money demand models.

Suggested Citation

  • Martin Schmidt, 2007. "The long and short of money: short-run dynamics within a structural model," Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 40(2), pages 175-192.
  • Handle: RePEc:taf:applec:v:40:y:2007:i:2:p:175-192
    DOI: 10.1080/00036840600749805

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL:
    Download Restriction: Access to full text is restricted to subscribers.

    As the access to this document is restricted, you may want to search for a different version of it.

    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Engle, Robert F. & Hendry, David F., 1993. "Testing superexogeneity and invariance in regression models," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 56(1-2), pages 119-139, March.
    2. Carr, Jack & Darby, Michael R., 1981. "The role of money supply shocks in the short-run demand for money," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 8(2), pages 183-199.
    3. Harvey Cutler & Stephen Davies & Martin Schmidt, 2000. "Forecasting in a large macroeconomic system," Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 32(13), pages 1711-1718.
    4. Laidler, David, 1980. "The demand for money in the United States-- Yet again," Carnegie-Rochester Conference Series on Public Policy, Elsevier, vol. 12(1), pages 219-271, January.
    5. Cuthbertson, Keith & Taylor, Mark P, 1987. "The Demand for Money: A Dynamic Rational Expectations Model," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 97(388a), pages 65-76, Supplemen.
    6. Bernanke, Ben S & Blinder, Alan S, 1992. "The Federal Funds Rate and the Channels of Monetary Transmission," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 82(4), pages 901-921, September.
    7. Miyao, Ryuzo, 1996. "Does a Cointegrating M2 Demand Relation Really Exist in the United States?," Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 28(3), pages 365-380, August.
    8. Johansen, Soren, 1992. "Cointegration in partial systems and the efficiency of single-equation analysis," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 52(3), pages 389-402, June.
    9. Haug, Alfred A., 1996. "Tests for cointegration a Monte Carlo comparison," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 71(1-2), pages 89-115.
    10. Harbo, Ingrid, et al, 1998. "Asymptotic Inference on Cointegrating Rank in Partial Systems," Journal of Business & Economic Statistics, American Statistical Association, vol. 16(4), pages 388-399, October.
    11. Fischer, Andreas M. & Nicoletti, Giuseppe, 1993. "Regression direction and weak exogeneity: Determining the conditioning properties of US money demand functions," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 32(2), pages 213-235, November.
    12. Gordon, Robert J, 1984. "The Short-run Demand for Money: A Reconsideration," Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 16(4), pages 403-434, November.
    13. Baghestani, Hamid & Mott, Tracy, 1997. "A Cointegration Analysis of the U.S. Money Supply Process," Journal of Macroeconomics, Elsevier, vol. 19(2), pages 269-283, April.
    14. Martin B. Schmidt, 2004. "Exogeneity within the M2 Demand Function: Evidence from a Large Macroeconomic System," Economic Inquiry, Western Economic Association International, vol. 42(4), pages 634-646, October.
    15. King, Robert G. & Plosser, Charles I. & Stock, James H. & Watson, Mark W., 1991. "Stochastic Trends and Economic Fluctuations," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 81(4), pages 819-840, September.
    16. Laidler, David, 1984. "The 'Buffer Stock' Notion in Monetary Economics," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 94(376a), pages 17-34, Supplemen.
    17. Fischer, Andreas M, 1993. "Is Money Really Exogenous? Testing for Weak Exogeneity in Swiss Money Demand," Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 25(2), pages 248-258, May.
    18. James M. Boughton, 1991. "Long-Run Money Demand in Large Industrial Countries," IMF Staff Papers, Palgrave Macmillan, vol. 38(1), pages 1-32, March.
    19. Coats, Warren L, Jr, 1982. "Modeling the Short-Run Demand for Money with Exogenous Supply," Economic Inquiry, Western Economic Association International, vol. 20(2), pages 222-239, April.
    20. Haslag, Joseph H & Hein, Scott E, 1990. "Economic Activity and Two Monetary Base Measures," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 72(4), pages 672-676, November.
    21. Crowder, William J, 1998. "The Long-Run Link between Money Growth and Inflation," Economic Inquiry, Western Economic Association International, vol. 36(2), pages 229-243, April.
    22. Michelle R. Garfinkel & Daniel L. Thornton, 1991. "Alternative measures of the monetary base: what are the differences and are they important?," Review, Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis, issue Nov, pages 19-35.
    23. James M. Boughton & George S. Tavlas, 1990. "Modeling money demand in large industrial countries: buffer stock and error correction approaches," Proceedings, Federal Reserve Bank of Cleveland, pages 433-467.
    24. Johansen, Soren, 1992. "Testing weak exogeneity and the order of cointegration in UK money demand data," Journal of Policy Modeling, Elsevier, vol. 14(3), pages 313-334, June.
    25. Mellander, Erik & Vredin, A & Warne, A, 1992. "Stochastic Trends and Economic Fluctuations in a Small Open Economy," Journal of Applied Econometrics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 7(4), pages 369-394, Oct.-Dec..
    26. Gonzalo, Jesus, 1994. "Five alternative methods of estimating long-run equilibrium relationships," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 60(1-2), pages 203-233.
    27. Carr, Jack & Darby, Michael R. & Thornton, Daniel L., 1985. "Monetary anticipations and the demand for money: Reply to MacKinnon and Milbourne," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 16(2), pages 251-257, September.
    28. Schmidt, Martin B., 2001. "The long and short of money and prices: a market equilibrium approach," Journal of Economics and Business, Elsevier, vol. 53(6), pages 563-583.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)


    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.

    Cited by:

    1. repec:spr:jecfin:v:41:y:2017:i:2:d:10.1007_s12197-016-9358-6 is not listed on IDEAS

    More about this item


    Access and download statistics


    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:taf:applec:v:40:y:2007:i:2:p:175-192. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Chris Longhurst). General contact details of provider: .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.