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Bootstrap testing for cointegration of international commodity prices


  • Seppo Pynnonen
  • Juuso Vataja


This paper investigates cointegration with respect to nine commodity groups traded on international markets. Nonparametric bootstrapping is utilized in the testing procedure. Of the 21 pairs of price series, investigated here, for 13 the no-cointegration null hypothesis is rejected in favour for the cointegration of the series. In addition to five out of the remaining eight cases that were not cointegrated, a plausible explanation is the prevailing trade policy. Thus a great majority of the institutionally nonregulated cases turn out to get empirical support for being cointegrated. An important statistical finding is that the augmented Dickey-Fuller test for cointegration (CRADF) generally yields p-values that are close to the p-values obtained by the bootstrap testing. But once they differ substantially, it is usually an indication of irregular periods (e.g. structural changes) in the series. The paper conducts also a Monte Carlo simulation experiment to investigate the power and size properties of the tests. Generally the results indicate that the test procedures have pretty low power in small samples. Bootstrapping improves the testing somewhat by leading consistently to a bit more powerful inference.

Suggested Citation

  • Seppo Pynnonen & Juuso Vataja, 2002. "Bootstrap testing for cointegration of international commodity prices," Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 34(5), pages 637-647.
  • Handle: RePEc:taf:applec:v:34:y:2002:i:5:p:637-647
    DOI: 10.1080/00036840110050642

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    References listed on IDEAS

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    Cited by:

    1. Sanidas, Elias, 2005. "The Australian Dollar's Long-Term Fluctuations and Trend: The Commodity Prices-cum-Economic Cycles Hypothesis," Economics Working Papers wp05-29, School of Economics, University of Wollongong, NSW, Australia.
    2. Wing Yuk, 2005. "Government Size and Economic Growth: Time-Series Evidence for the United Kingdom, 1830-1993," Econometrics Working Papers 0501, Department of Economics, University of Victoria.
    3. Shackman, Joshua D., 2006. "The equity premium and market integration: Evidence from international data," Journal of International Financial Markets, Institutions and Money, Elsevier, vol. 16(2), pages 155-179, April.
    4. Sanidas, Elias, 2014. "Four harmonic cycles explain and predict commodity currencies' wide long term fluctuations," Technological Forecasting and Social Change, Elsevier, vol. 87(C), pages 135-151.

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