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Behavioral responses to terrorist attacks: empirical evidence from professional football


  • Nicolas Frevel
  • Dominik Schreyer


Despite a rich literature on the psychological responses to terrorist attacks, surprisingly little is known about the subsequent changes in citizen behavior. In this research note, we exploit a unique sequence of two rare events, the Paris attacks of 13 November 2015 and the cancelation of the international friendly between Germany and the Netherlands over terrorist threats only four days later, to compare the number of German football spectator no-shows, i.e., the number of ticket holders that have decided not to attend a particular football game, before and after these attacks. Although we observe a significant increase in the number of no-shows during the first two weeks after the incidents, this effect was not permanent.

Suggested Citation

  • Nicolas Frevel & Dominik Schreyer, 2020. "Behavioral responses to terrorist attacks: empirical evidence from professional football," Applied Economics Letters, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 27(3), pages 244-247, February.
  • Handle: RePEc:taf:apeclt:v:27:y:2020:i:3:p:244-247
    DOI: 10.1080/13504851.2019.1613490

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    Cited by:

    1. J. James Reade & Carl Singleton, 2020. "Demand for Public Events in the COVID-19 Pandemic: A Case Study of European Football," Economics Discussion Papers em-dp2020-09, Department of Economics, Reading University.
    2. Dominik Schreyer & Sascha L. Schmidt & Benno Torgler, 2020. "Using reminders with different reward opportunities to reduce no-show behavior: Empirical evidence from a large-scale field experiment in professional sport," CREMA Working Paper Series 2020-19, Center for Research in Economics, Management and the Arts (CREMA).
    3. J. James Reade & Dominik Schreyer & Carl Singleton, 2020. "Stadium attendance demand during the COVID-19 crisis: Early empirical evidence from Belarus," Economics Discussion Papers em-dp2020-20, Department of Economics, Reading University.
    4. Alex Bryson & Peter Dolton & J. James Reade & Dominik Schreyer & Carl Singleton, 2021. "What we can learn about economics from professional sport during Covid-19," National Institute of Economic and Social Research (NIESR) Discussion Papers 525, National Institute of Economic and Social Research.

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