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How is confidence related to unemployment in Portugal?

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  • Antonio Caleiro

Abstract

By the use of fuzzy logic, this paper shows how confidence is related to unemployment in Portugal. The results indicate it to be a worthwhile exercise, as the apparent importance of unemployment upon confidence is only revealed by the fuzzy logic approximation.

Suggested Citation

  • Antonio Caleiro, 2006. "How is confidence related to unemployment in Portugal?," Applied Economics Letters, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 13(13), pages 887-890.
  • Handle: RePEc:taf:apeclt:v:13:y:2006:i:13:p:887-890 DOI: 10.1080/13504850500425139
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    1. Caroline Elliott & Dan Ellingworth, 1998. "Exploring the relationship between unemployment and property crime," Applied Economics Letters, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 5(8), pages 527-530.
    2. Charles Delorme & David Kamerschen & Lisa Ford Voeks, 2001. "Consumer confidence and rational expectations in the United States compared with the United Kingdom," Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 33(7), pages 863-869.
    3. Annabelle Mourougane & Moreno Roma, 2003. "Can confidence indicators be useful to predict short term real GDP growth?," Applied Economics Letters, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 10(8), pages 519-522.
    4. James E. West & Bruce Linster, 2003. "The Evolution of Fuzzy Rules as Strategies in Two-Player Games," Southern Economic Journal, Southern Economic Association, vol. 69(3), pages 705-717, January.
    5. Evans, George W. & Honkapohja, Seppo, 1999. "Learning dynamics," Handbook of Macroeconomics,in: J. B. Taylor & M. Woodford (ed.), Handbook of Macroeconomics, edition 1, volume 1, chapter 7, pages 449-542 Elsevier.
    6. Teresa Santero & Niels Westerlund, 1996. "Confidence Indicators and Their Relationship to Changes in Economic Activity," OECD Economics Department Working Papers 170, OECD Publishing.
    7. Robert Witt & Alan Clarke & Nigel Fielding, 1998. "Crime, earnings inequality and unemployment in England and Wales," Applied Economics Letters, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 5(4), pages 265-267.
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    Cited by:

    1. António Caleiro, 2007. "Confidence and Unemployment in the European Union: A lesson from the 2004 enlargement," Notas Económicas, Faculty of Economics, University of Coimbra, issue 26, pages 15-26, December.
    2. Caleiro, António, 2011. "Desemprego e felicidade em Portugal
      [Unemployment and happiness in Portugal]
      ," MPRA Paper 34997, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    3. Ramalho, Esmeralda A. & Caleiro, António & Dionfsio, Andreia, 2011. "Explaining consumer confidence in Portugal," Journal of Economic Psychology, Elsevier, vol. 32(1), pages 25-32, February.
    4. Atsuo Utaka, 2014. "Consumer Confidence and the Japanese Economy -Comparison of Pre- and Post-Bubble Period-," Economics Bulletin, AccessEcon, vol. 34(2), pages 1165-1173.

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