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Subjective Versus Objective Economic Measures, A fuzzy logic exercise


  • António Caleiro

    () (Department of Economics, University of Évora)


It is rather evident that there is much more (statistical) information about objective aggregates, such as inflation, output or unemployment than that concerning subjective aggregates, such as well-being, satisfaction, confidence or even expectations. Due to its characteristics, fuzzy logic can and should indeed be used to understand how some of those subjective measures can be approximated by objective ones. This task is accomplished in the paper by the use of Portuguese data on consumer confidence - the subjective economic measure - and on the unemployment rate - the objective economic measure -. The results clearly indicate that to be a worthwhile exercise as the clear importance of unemployment on confidence is only revealed by the fuzzy logic approximation.

Suggested Citation

  • António Caleiro, 2003. "Subjective Versus Objective Economic Measures, A fuzzy logic exercise," Economics Working Papers 11_2003, University of Évora, Department of Economics (Portugal).
  • Handle: RePEc:evo:wpecon:11_2003

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. S. S. L. Chang & H. O. Stekler, 1977. "Fuzziness in Economic Systems, Its Modeling and Control," NBER Chapters,in: Annals of Economic and Social Measurement, Volume 6, number 2, pages 165-174 National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    2. Carlo Bagnoli & Halbert C. Smith, 1998. "The Theory of Fuzzy Logic and its Application to Real Estate Valuation," Journal of Real Estate Research, American Real Estate Society, vol. 16(2), pages 169-200.
    3. James E. West & Bruce Linster, 2003. "The Evolution of Fuzzy Rules as Strategies in Two-Player Games," Southern Economic Journal, Southern Economic Association, vol. 69(3), pages 705-717, January.
    4. Sargent, Thomas J., 1993. "Bounded Rationality in Macroeconomics: The Arne Ryde Memorial Lectures," OUP Catalogue, Oxford University Press, number 9780198288695.
    5. Robert Draeseke & David E. A. Giles, 1999. "A Fuzzy Logic Approach to Modelling the Underground Economy," Econometrics Working Papers 9909, Department of Economics, University of Victoria.
    6. William D. Nordhaus, 1975. "The Political Business Cycle," Review of Economic Studies, Oxford University Press, vol. 42(2), pages 169-190.
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    More about this item


    Confidence; Fuzzy Logic; Objective Measures; Subjective Measures;

    JEL classification:

    • C10 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Econometric and Statistical Methods and Methodology: General - - - General
    • C82 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Data Collection and Data Estimation Methodology; Computer Programs - - - Methodology for Collecting, Estimating, and Organizing Macroeconomic Data; Data Access
    • E32 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - Prices, Business Fluctuations, and Cycles - - - Business Fluctuations; Cycles


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