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System Dynamics Analysis for Managing Iran’s Zayandeh-Rud River Basin

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  • Kaveh Madani

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  • Miguel Mariño

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Abstract

Within river basins different social, economic, political and physical subsystems interact. When making decisions, policy makers should be aware of such interactions as any new policy will affect more than one subsystem. To determine the adequacy of a specific management policy, an integrated study is needed of a complicated water management system in the basin considering major physical, social, economic and political aspects. The Zayandeh-Rud river basin, in central Iran with a semi-arid climate and large agricultural, industrial and domestic water uses, is an example of a complicated watershed system where the lack of complete knowledge about all the interacting subsystems has led to failure of the policy makers in addressing the water shortage in the basin. Although water shortages occur fairly soon after completion of each new water source, transbasin water diversion is still the major policy of water planners to address ongoing shortages. System dynamics provides a unique framework for integrating the disparate physical, socio-economic and political systems important to watershed management. This approach is used to comprehend the interactions of different drivers of the problem and to convey the experiences, lessons learned, and perceptions gained during the model development process. A simulation model, built based on causal loop diagrams of the problem, shows that transbasin diversion is not the best and only solution to the problem. The results of the model for different scenarios suggest that various options of demand management and population control can be more effective in addressing the water crisis of the basin when combined with transbasin water diversions, increasing water storage capacity and controlling of groundwater withdrawal. Copyright Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2009

Suggested Citation

  • Kaveh Madani & Miguel Mariño, 2009. "System Dynamics Analysis for Managing Iran’s Zayandeh-Rud River Basin," Water Resources Management: An International Journal, Published for the European Water Resources Association (EWRA), Springer;European Water Resources Association (EWRA), vol. 23(11), pages 2163-2187, September.
  • Handle: RePEc:spr:waterr:v:23:y:2009:i:11:p:2163-2187
    DOI: 10.1007/s11269-008-9376-z
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    Cited by:

    1. Maryam Ghashghaei & Ali Bagheri & Saeed Morid, 2013. "Rainfall-runoff Modeling in a Watershed Scale Using an Object Oriented Approach Based on the Concepts of System Dynamics," Water Resources Management: An International Journal, Published for the European Water Resources Association (EWRA), Springer;European Water Resources Association (EWRA), vol. 27(15), pages 5119-5141, December.
    2. Ali Bagheri & Moosa Darijani & Ali Asgary & Saeed Morid, 2010. "Crisis in Urban Water Systems during the Reconstruction Period: A System Dynamics Analysis of Alternative Policies after the 2003 Earthquake in Bam-Iran," Water Resources Management: An International Journal, Published for the European Water Resources Association (EWRA), Springer;European Water Resources Association (EWRA), vol. 24(11), pages 2567-2596, September.
    3. Mehran Homayounfar & Sai Lai & Mehdi Zomorodian & Ali Sepaskhah & Arman Ganji, 2014. "Optimal Crop Water Allocation in Case of Drought Occurrence, Imposing Deficit Irrigation with Proportional Cutback Constraint," Water Resources Management: An International Journal, Published for the European Water Resources Association (EWRA), Springer;European Water Resources Association (EWRA), vol. 28(10), pages 3207-3225, August.
    4. Jeong, Hanseok & Adamowski, Jan, 2016. "A system dynamics based socio-hydrological model for agricultural wastewater reuse at the watershed scale," Agricultural Water Management, Elsevier, vol. 171(C), pages 89-107.
    5. Mehdi Zomorodian & Sai Hin Lai & Mehran Homayounfar & Shaliza Ibrahim & Gareth Pender, 2017. "Development and application of coupled system dynamics and game theory: A dynamic water conflict resolution method," PLOS ONE, Public Library of Science, vol. 12(12), pages 1-24, December.
    6. S. L. Razavi Toosi & J. M. V. Samani, 2017. "Prioritizing Watersheds Using a Novel Hybrid Decision Model Based on Fuzzy DEMATEL, Fuzzy ANP and Fuzzy VIKOR," Water Resources Management: An International Journal, Published for the European Water Resources Association (EWRA), Springer;European Water Resources Association (EWRA), vol. 31(9), pages 2853-2867, July.
    7. Wang Xiao-jun & Zhang Jian-yun & Shahid Shamsuddin & He Rui-min & Xia Xing-hui & Mou Xin-li, 2015. "Potential impact of climate change on future water demand in Yulin city, Northwest China," Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change, Springer, vol. 20(1), pages 1-19, January.
    8. Alireza Gohari & Ali Mirchi & Kaveh Madani, 2017. "System Dynamics Evaluation of Climate Change Adaptation Strategies for Water Resources Management in Central Iran," Water Resources Management: An International Journal, Published for the European Water Resources Association (EWRA), Springer;European Water Resources Association (EWRA), vol. 31(5), pages 1413-1434, March.
    9. Mahsa Jahandideh-Tehrani & Omid Bozorg Haddad & Hugo Loáiciga, 2015. "Hydropower Reservoir Management Under Climate Change: The Karoon Reservoir System," Water Resources Management: An International Journal, Published for the European Water Resources Association (EWRA), Springer;European Water Resources Association (EWRA), vol. 29(3), pages 749-770, February.
    10. March, Hug & Therond, Olivier & Leenhardt, Delphine, 2012. "Water futures: Reviewing water-scenario analyses through an original interpretative framework," Ecological Economics, Elsevier, vol. 82(C), pages 126-137.
    11. Kaveh Madani, 2014. "Water management in Iran: what is causing the looming crisis?," Journal of Environmental Studies and Sciences, Springer;Association of Environmental Studies and Sciences, vol. 4(4), pages 315-328, December.
    12. Elmira Hassanzadeh & Mahdi Zarghami & Yousef Hassanzadeh, 2012. "Determining the Main Factors in Declining the Urmia Lake Level by Using System Dynamics Modeling," Water Resources Management: An International Journal, Published for the European Water Resources Association (EWRA), Springer;European Water Resources Association (EWRA), vol. 26(1), pages 129-145, January.
    13. José Andrade & Paulo Barbosa & Luiz Souza & Daniel Makino, 2011. "Interbasin Water Transfers: The Brazilian Experience and International Case Comparisons," Water Resources Management: An International Journal, Published for the European Water Resources Association (EWRA), Springer;European Water Resources Association (EWRA), vol. 25(8), pages 1915-1934, June.
    14. Hashemy Shahdany, S. Mehdy & Firoozfar, Alireza & Maestre, J.M. & Mallakpour, Iman & Taghvaeian, Saleh & Karimi, Poolad, 2018. "Operational performance improvements in irrigation canals to overcome groundwater overexploitation," Agricultural Water Management, Elsevier, vol. 204(C), pages 234-246.
    15. Ali Mirchi & Kaveh Madani & David Watkins & Sajjad Ahmad, 2012. "Synthesis of System Dynamics Tools for Holistic Conceptualization of Water Resources Problems," Water Resources Management: An International Journal, Published for the European Water Resources Association (EWRA), Springer;European Water Resources Association (EWRA), vol. 26(9), pages 2421-2442, July.
    16. Madani, Kaveh & Dinar, Ariel, 2012. "Non-cooperative institutions for sustainable common pool resource management: Application to groundwater," Ecological Economics, Elsevier, vol. 74(C), pages 34-45.
    17. Sajjad Ahmad & Dinesh Prashar, 2010. "Evaluating Municipal Water Conservation Policies Using a Dynamic Simulation Model," Water Resources Management: An International Journal, Published for the European Water Resources Association (EWRA), Springer;European Water Resources Association (EWRA), vol. 24(13), pages 3371-3395, October.
    18. Erica Gaddis & Alexey Voinov, 2010. "Spatially Explicit Modeling of Land Use Specific Phosphorus Transport Pathways to Improve TMDL Load Estimates and Implementation Planning," Water Resources Management: An International Journal, Published for the European Water Resources Association (EWRA), Springer;European Water Resources Association (EWRA), vol. 24(8), pages 1621-1644, June.

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