IDEAS home Printed from
   My bibliography  Save this article

Examining the Degree of Social Exclusion Risk of the Population Aged 50 + in the EU Countries Under the Capability Approach


  • Tomasz Panek

    (Warsaw School of Economics)

  • Jan Zwierzchowski

    (Warsaw School of Economics)


A novel method of measuring the degree of social exclusion (hereafter: DSE) is presented. Conceptually, the proposed approach is based on the Sen’s concept of capabilities. The operationalisation of the DSE measurement was conducted using the MIMIC model. It allows for assessing the DSE as well as identifying ways in which functioning of individuals leads to social exclusion. Moreover, it enables identification of individuals’ personal, social, and environmental characteristics that influence their DSE. Finally, as the proposed method is model-based, it allows for factoring in different ways of functioning of individuals in various countries in the measurement process. The empirical part of the paper presents a comparative analysis of the DSE among the population aged 50 + in eight EU countries using data from The Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe (SHARE, 2017). Specifically, the analysis was conducted for: Denmark and Sweden (the Nordic countries), France and Germany (the Continental European countries), Italy and Spain (Mediterranean European countries), Czechia and Poland (Eastern European countries). The Nordic and Continental European countries proved to be less affected by social exclusion among older individuals than Eastern and Mediterranean European countries. Moreover, the results indicate that the DSE in each of the distinguished domain was determined by different underlying factors, the influence of which varied from country to country. Gaining a better understanding of various paths in which older people become socially excluded can help to support policies designed to combat social exclusion of this group of persons within the EU member states.

Suggested Citation

  • Tomasz Panek & Jan Zwierzchowski, 2022. "Examining the Degree of Social Exclusion Risk of the Population Aged 50 + in the EU Countries Under the Capability Approach," Social Indicators Research: An International and Interdisciplinary Journal for Quality-of-Life Measurement, Springer, vol. 163(3), pages 973-1002, October.
  • Handle: RePEc:spr:soinre:v:163:y:2022:i:3:d:10.1007_s11205-022-02930-9
    DOI: 10.1007/s11205-022-02930-9

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL:
    File Function: Abstract
    Download Restriction: Access to the full text of the articles in this series is restricted.

    File URL:
    LibKey link: if access is restricted and if your library uses this service, LibKey will redirect you to where you can use your library subscription to access this item

    As the access to this document is restricted, you may want to search for a different version of it.

    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Pohlan, Laura, 2019. "Unemployment and social exclusion," Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization, Elsevier, vol. 164(C), pages 273-299.
    2. Satya R. Chakravarty & Conchita D’Ambrosio, 2019. "The Measurement of Social Exclusion," Themes in Economics, in: Satya R. Chakravarty (ed.), Poverty, Social Exclusion and Stochastic Dominance, pages 167-189, Springer.
    3. Comim,Flavio & Qizilbash,Mozaffar & Alkire,Sabina (ed.), 2008. "The Capability Approach," Cambridge Books, Cambridge University Press, number 9780521862875, November.
    4. Ingrid Robeyns, 2005. "The Capability Approach: a theoretical survey," Journal of Human Development and Capabilities, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 6(1), pages 93-117.
    5. Ingrid Robeyns, 2003. "Sen'S Capability Approach And Gender Inequality: Selecting Relevant Capabilities," Feminist Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 9(2-3), pages 61-92.
    6. Crocker,David A., 2008. "Ethics of Global Development," Cambridge Books, Cambridge University Press, number 9780521885195, November.
    7. Prattley, Jennifer & Buffel, Tine & Marshall, Alan & Nazroo, James, 2020. "Area effects on the level and development of social exclusion in later life," Social Science & Medicine, Elsevier, vol. 246(C).
    8. World Bank, 2013. "Inclusion Matters : The Foundation for Shared Prosperity [Inclusión social : clave de la prosperidad para todos - resumen]," World Bank Publications - Books, The World Bank Group, number 16195, December.
    9. Lorgelly, Paula K. & Lorimer, Karen & Fenwick, Elisabeth A.L. & Briggs, Andrew H. & Anand, Paul, 2015. "Operationalising the capability approach as an outcome measure in public health: The development of the OCAP-18," Social Science & Medicine, Elsevier, vol. 142(C), pages 68-81.
    10. Ambra Poggi, 2007. "Does persistence of social exclusion exist in Spain?," The Journal of Economic Inequality, Springer;Society for the Study of Economic Inequality, vol. 5(1), pages 53-72, April.
    11. Kieran Walsh & Thomas Scharf & Norah Keating, 2017. "Social exclusion of older persons: a scoping review and conceptual framework," European Journal of Ageing, Springer, vol. 14(1), pages 81-98, March.
    12. Masa Filipovic Hrast & Anja Kopac Mrak & Tatjana Rakar, 2013. "Social exclusion of elderly in Central and Eastern Europe," International Journal of Social Economics, Emerald Group Publishing Limited, vol. 40(11), pages 971-989, October.
    13. Riyana Miranti & Peng Yu, 2015. "Why Social Exclusion Persists among Older People in Australia," Social Inclusion, Cogitatio Press, vol. 3(4), pages 112-126.
    14. Jaya Krishnakumar, 2007. "Going Beyond Functionings to Capabilities: An Econometric Model to Explain and Estimate Capabilities," Journal of Human Development and Capabilities, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 8(1), pages 39-63.
    15. Kaushik, Basu & Lòpez-Calva, Luis F., 2011. "Chapter Sixteen - Functionings and Capabilities," Handbook of Social Choice and Welfare, in: K. J. Arrow & A. K. Sen & K. Suzumura (ed.), Handbook of Social Choice and Welfare, edition 1, volume 2, chapter 16, pages 153-187, Elsevier.
    16. Brian Nolan & Christopher T. Whelan, 2010. "Using non-monetary deprivation indicators to analyze poverty and social exclusion: Lessons from Europe?," Journal of Policy Analysis and Management, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 29(2), pages 305-325.
    17. Krishnakumar, Jaya & Ballon, Paola, 2008. "Estimating Basic Capabilities: A Structural Equation Model Applied to Bolivia," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 36(6), pages 992-1010, June.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    Most related items

    These are the items that most often cite the same works as this one and are cited by the same works as this one.
    1. Mohammad Abu-Zaineh & Maame Esi Woode, 2018. "Investigating the Dimensions of Youth Wellbeing: An Exploratory Structural Equation Modelling Approach Applied to Palestine," Child Indicators Research, Springer;The International Society of Child Indicators (ISCI), vol. 11(1), pages 57-78, February.
    2. Hamid Hasan, 2019. "Confidence in Subjective Evaluation of Human Well-Being in Sen’s Capabilities Perspective," Journal of Happiness Studies, Springer, vol. 20(1), pages 1-17, January.
    3. Dalila De Rosa, 2018. "Capability Approach and Multidimensional Well-Being: The Italian Case of BES," Social Indicators Research: An International and Interdisciplinary Journal for Quality-of-Life Measurement, Springer, vol. 140(1), pages 125-155, November.
    4. Izabela Grabowska, 2021. "Quality of Life in Poor Neighborhoods through the Lenses of the Capability Approach—A Case Study of a Deprived Area of Łódź City Centre," Sustainability, MDPI, vol. 13(13), pages 1-24, June.
    5. Dorian Fernando LEON, 2017. "Differential approach and capabilities: An analysis for the population displaced in Colombia," Journal of Economic and Social Thought, KSP Journals, vol. 4(3), pages 312-321, Seprember.
    6. Mónica Domínguez-Serrano & Lucía Moral Espín, 2018. "From Relevant Capabilities to Relevant Indicators: Defining an Indicator System for Children’s Well-Being in Spain," Child Indicators Research, Springer;The International Society of Child Indicators (ISCI), vol. 11(1), pages 1-25, February.
    7. Paul Mark Mitchell & Samantha Husbands & Sarah Byford & Philip Kinghorn & Cara Bailey & Tim J. Peters & Joanna Coast, 2021. "Challenges in developing capability measures for children and young people for use in the economic evaluation of health and care interventions," Health Economics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 30(9), pages 1990-2003, September.
    8. Costantini, Valeria & Monni, Salvatore, 2009. "Gender disparities in the Italian regions from a human development perspective," Journal of Behavioral and Experimental Economics (formerly The Journal of Socio-Economics), Elsevier, vol. 38(2), pages 256-269, March.
    9. Joanna Coast, 2019. "Assessing capability in economic evaluation: a life course approach?," The European Journal of Health Economics, Springer;Deutsche Gesellschaft für Gesundheitsökonomie (DGGÖ), vol. 20(6), pages 779-784, August.
    10. Chiappero-Martinetti, Enrica & Sabadash, Anna, 2014. "Integrating Human Capital and Human Capabilities in Understanding the Value of Education," MPRA Paper 61800, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    11. León, Dorian Fernando, 2017. "Differential Approach and Capabilities: An Analysis for the Colombia's Population Displaced," OSF Preprints 9g3e6, Center for Open Science.
    12. Henderson, Heath & Follett, Lendie, 2020. "A Bayesian framework for estimating human capabilities," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 129(C).
    13. Paul Ningaye & Yemedjeu Tiomela & Virginie Takoutio Feudjio, 2011. "Multi-Poverty in Cameroon: a Dimensional Scores Approach. Multi-pauvreté au Cameroun: Approche par les scores dimensionnels," Working Papers PMMA 2011-01, PEP-PMMA.
    14. Francesco Burchi & Nicole Rippin & Claudio Montenegro, 2018. "From Income Poverty to Multidimensional Poverty: An International Comparison," Working Papers wp473, University of Chile, Department of Economics.
    15. Ballon, Paola, 2013. "The selection of functionings and capabilities: A survey of empirical studies," PEP Working Papers 160427, Partnership for Economic Policy (PEP).
    16. Paul Ningaye & Tiomela Alexi & Takoutio Virginie, 2013. "Multi-Poverty in Cameroon: A Structural Equation Modeling Approach," Social Indicators Research: An International and Interdisciplinary Journal for Quality-of-Life Measurement, Springer, vol. 113(1), pages 159-181, August.
    17. Leon, Dorian, 2017. "Differential Approach and Capabilities: An Analysis for the Colombia's Population Displaced," MPRA Paper 82085, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    18. Sabina Alkire, 2011. "Multidimensional Poverty and its Discontents," OPHI Working Papers 46, Queen Elizabeth House, University of Oxford.
    19. Anna Shevyakova & Eleonorа Munsh & Malika Arystan, 2019. "Towards diversification of the economy of Kazakhstan via information support for the tourism industry," Insights into Regional Development, VsI Entrepreneurship and Sustainability Center, vol. 1(2), pages 138-154, June.
    20. Fotis Papadopoulos & Panos Tsakloglou, 2015. "Chronic material deprivation and long-term poverty in Europe in the pre-crisis period," ImPRovE Working Papers 15/16, Herman Deleeck Centre for Social Policy, University of Antwerp.


    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:spr:soinre:v:163:y:2022:i:3:d:10.1007_s11205-022-02930-9. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a bibliographic reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: Sonal Shukla or Springer Nature Abstracting and Indexing (email available below). General contact details of provider: .

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service. RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.