IDEAS home Printed from
   My bibliography  Save this article

Discovered and undiscovered mineral resources: Evolving accounts and future prospects of minerals in Finland


  • M. Kivinen

    (Geological Survey of Finland)

  • J. Pokki

    (Geological Survey of Finland)

  • M. Markovaara-Koivisto

    (Geological Survey of Finland)


Minerals are natural resources requiring accurate investigation and planning of extraction prior the actual mining stage. National and regional mineral resource inventories would benefit from adding more detail beyond tonnage, grade and location, when evaluating both current and potential future mineral wealth. In this paper, we consider the effect of information, time and project cycle on the mineral resource inventories for Finland. The research is forward-looking, and thus, we include the identified (but not mined) portions of discovered mineral resources and also the estimated undiscovered mineral resources (terminology based on the United States Geological Survey mineral resource classification). In addition, we consider how other types of land use limit mineral exploration. The studied metals were Cu, Ni, Zn, Cr, Fe, Au, Ag, Pt and Pd. The identified mineral resources of all of these metals increased from 2008 to 2015, driven by exploration and development at already known mineral deposits and mine sites. The results show that continuation of mine production is relatively well supported by currently profitable resources (i.e. ore reserves) in active mines and via development projects in the pipeline. In addition, a significant amounts of resources are still inferred to be discoverable for Pt, Pd, Cr, Au and Cu. A quarter of the mineral potential areas are reserved for land uses that restrict but not necessarily prevent mineral exploration. A share of identified resources occur in deposits that are not feasible for mining or interesting enough for exploration and development today. Our study demonstrates that identified resources become usable within different time periods. Knowledge of mineral resources and their usability is constantly changing, and even though mineral deposits are non-renewable, known mineral resources can be increased by exploration and mine planning processes.

Suggested Citation

  • M. Kivinen & J. Pokki & M. Markovaara-Koivisto, 2018. "Discovered and undiscovered mineral resources: Evolving accounts and future prospects of minerals in Finland," Mineral Economics, Springer;Raw Materials Group (RMG);Luleå University of Technology, vol. 31(3), pages 301-317, October.
  • Handle: RePEc:spr:minecn:v:31:y:2018:i:3:d:10.1007_s13563-017-0131-x
    DOI: 10.1007/s13563-017-0131-x

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL:
    File Function: Abstract
    Download Restriction: Access to the full text of the articles in this series is restricted.

    File URL:
    LibKey link: if access is restricted and if your library uses this service, LibKey will redirect you to where you can use your library subscription to access this item

    As the access to this document is restricted, you may want to search for a different version of it.

    References listed on IDEAS

    1. AfDB AfDB, . "Annual Report 2012," Annual Report, African Development Bank, number 461.
    2. Willi Haas & Fridolin Krausmann & Dominik Wiedenhofer & Markus Heinz, 2015. "How Circular is the Global Economy?: An Assessment of Material Flows, Waste Production, and Recycling in the European Union and the World in 2005," Journal of Industrial Ecology, Yale University, vol. 19(5), pages 765-777, October.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)


    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.

    Cited by:

    1. Kivinen, Mari & Eilu, Pasi & Markovaara-Koivisto, Mira, 2021. "Mineral futures in land-use planning: Foresight tools and case studies in Northern Finland," Resources Policy, Elsevier, vol. 70(C).

    Most related items

    These are the items that most often cite the same works as this one and are cited by the same works as this one.
    1. José Antonio Rodríguez Martín & Juan Dios Jiménez Aguilera & José Antonio Salinas Fernández & José María Martín Martín, 2016. "Millennium Development Goals 4 and 5: Progress in the Least Developed Countries of Asia," Social Indicators Research: An International and Interdisciplinary Journal for Quality-of-Life Measurement, Springer, vol. 129(2), pages 489-504, November.
    2. Steffi Heinecke, 2016. "The Gradual Transformation of the Polish Public Science System," PLOS ONE, Public Library of Science, vol. 11(4), pages 1-17, April.
    3. Craig Garthwaite & Tal Gross & Matthew J. Notowidigdo, 2014. "Public Health Insurance, Labor Supply, and Employment Lock," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 129(2), pages 653-696.
    4. Yves Crozet, 2016. "Introducing competition in the European rail sector. Insights for a holistic regulatory assessment," Post-Print halshs-01397691, HAL.
    5. Alkis Theonas Pitelis & Christos Pitelis, 2016. "New Roles that Key Developing Countries Will Have in the Provision of Finance for Europe," Working papers wpaper138, Financialisation, Economy, Society & Sustainable Development (FESSUD) Project.
    6. Tarek Roshdy Gebba & Mohamed Gamal Aboelmaged, 2016. "Corporate Governance of UAE Financial Institutions: A Comparative Study between Conventional and Islamic Banks," Journal of Applied Finance & Banking, SCIENPRESS Ltd, vol. 6(5), pages 1-7.
    7. Ngarava, Saul & Mushunje, Abbyssinia & Chaminuka, Petronella, 2020. "Qualitative benefits of livestock development programmes. Evidence from the Kaonafatso ya Dikgomo (KyD) Scheme in South Africa," Evaluation and Program Planning, Elsevier, vol. 78(C).
    8. Peiró-Signes, Ángel & Segarra-Oña, Marival & Trull-Domínguez, Óscar & Sánchez-Planelles, Joaquín, 2022. "Exposing the ideal combination of endogenous–exogenous drivers for companies’ ecoinnovative orientation: Results from machine-learning methods," Socio-Economic Planning Sciences, Elsevier, vol. 79(C).
    9. Elena Dieckmann & Leila Sheldrick & Mike Tennant & Rupert Myers & Christopher Cheeseman, 2020. "Analysis of Barriers to Transitioning from a Linear to a Circular Economy for End of Life Materials: A Case Study for Waste Feathers," Sustainability, MDPI, vol. 12(5), pages 1-23, February.
    10. Nelson, Ewan & Warren, Peter, 2020. "UK transport decoupling: On track for clean growth in transport?," Transport Policy, Elsevier, vol. 90(C), pages 39-51.
    11. Antonio Bassanetti & Matteo Bugamelli & Sandro Momigliano & Roberto Sabbatini & Francesco Zollino, 2014. "The policy response to macroeconomic and fiscal imbalances in Italy in the last fifteen years," PSL Quarterly Review, Economia civile, vol. 67(268), pages 55-103.
    12. Hannula, I. & Reiner, D., 2017. "The race to solve the sustainable transport problem via carbon-neutral synthetic fuels and battery electric vehicles," Cambridge Working Papers in Economics 1758, Faculty of Economics, University of Cambridge.
    13. Joseph I. Uduji & Elda N. Okolo-Obasi & Simplice A. Asongu, 2019. "Responsible use of crop protection products and Nigeria's growth enhancement support scheme," Development in Practice, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 29(4), pages 448-463, May.
    14. Jérôme Creel & Paul Hubert & Francesco Saraceno, 2014. "French Public Finances at Risk?," Panoeconomicus, Savez ekonomista Vojvodine, Novi Sad, Serbia, vol. 61(1), pages 1-19, Februar.
    15. Peter J. Rimmer, 2014. "Asian-Pacific Rim Logistics," Books, Edward Elgar Publishing, number 12949.
    16. Clarete, Ramon L. & Villamil, Isabela Rosario G., 2015. "Readiness of the Philippine Agriculture and Fisheries Sectors for the 2015 ASEAN Economic Community: A Rapid Appraisal," Research Paper Series DP 2015-43, Philippine Institute for Development Studies.
    17. von Meyer-Höfer, Marie & Spiller, Achim, 2014. "“Sustainability” a semi-globalisable concept for international food marketing - Consumer expectations regarding sustainable food – An explorative survey in industrialised and emerging countries," GlobalFood Discussion Papers 182513, Georg-August-Universitaet Goettingen, GlobalFood, Department of Agricultural Economics and Rural Development.
    18. Jesús Fernández-Huertas Moraga & Hillel Rapoport, 2015. "Tradable Refugee-admission Quotas and EU Asylum Policy," CESifo Economic Studies, CESifo, vol. 61(3-4), pages 638-672.
    19. Li, Xi & Yu, Biying, 2019. "Peaking CO2 emissions for China's urban passenger transport sector," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 133(C).
    20. Emanuel, Elizabeth & Alleyne, Dillon & Phillips, Willard, 2013. "An assessment of fiscal and regulatory barriers to the deployment of energy efficiency and renewable energy technologies in Saint Lucia," Sede Subregional de la CEPAL para el Caribe (Estudios e Investigaciones) 38502, Naciones Unidas Comisión Económica para América Latina y el Caribe (CEPAL).


    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:spr:minecn:v:31:y:2018:i:3:d:10.1007_s13563-017-0131-x. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: . General contact details of provider: .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a bibliographic reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: Sonal Shukla or Springer Nature Abstracting and Indexing (email available below). General contact details of provider: .

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.