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The demand for nonrelative child care among families with infants and toddlers: A double-hurdle approach


  • Bridget G. Hiedemann

    () (Seattle University, Department of Economics and Finance, Broadway and Madison, Seattle, WA 98122-4460, USA)

  • Jutta M. Joesch

    () (Battelle, Centers for Public Health Research & Evaluation, 4500 Sand Point Way N.E., Suite 100, Seattle WA 98105-3949, USA)


Despite the increasing prevalence of nonparental child care, many parents in the United States care exclusively for their young children, even when both parents work. We examine reasons for non-consumption of child care by estimating double-hurdle, tobit and dominance models of the demand for nonrelative child care. Our results indicate that parents' decision whether to use any nonrelative child care is guided by different considerations than the decision of how much care to use. Furthermore, our findings are consistent with the hypothesis that some parents are not interested in nonrelative care, regardless of its price or nonmaternal income.

Suggested Citation

  • Bridget G. Hiedemann & Jutta M. Joesch, 2002. "The demand for nonrelative child care among families with infants and toddlers: A double-hurdle approach," Journal of Population Economics, Springer;European Society for Population Economics, vol. 15(3), pages 495-526.
  • Handle: RePEc:spr:jopoec:v:15:y:2002:i:3:p:495-526
    Note: Received: 27 January 2000/Accepted: 20 June 2001

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Mette Ejrnæs & Claus C. Pörtner, 2004. "Birth Order and the Intrahousehold Allocation of Time and Education," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 86(4), pages 1008-1019, November.
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    6. Mark R. Rosenzweig & Junsen Zhang, 2009. "Do Population Control Policies Induce More Human Capital Investment? Twins, Birth Weight and China's "One-Child" Policy," Review of Economic Studies, Oxford University Press, vol. 76(3), pages 1149-1174.
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    8. Jonathan Morduch, 2000. "Sibling Rivalry in Africa," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 90(2), pages 405-409, May.
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    11. Blunch,Niels-Hugo & Verner,Dorte, 2000. "Revisiting the link between poverty and child labor - the Ghanaian experience," Policy Research Working Paper Series 2488, The World Bank.
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    Cited by:

    1. Wolter, Stefan C., 2003. "Sibling Rivalry: A Six Country Comparison," IZA Discussion Papers 734, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
    2. Anzelika Zaiceva & Klaus Zimmermann, 2014. "Children, Kitchen, Church: does ethnicity matter?," Review of Economics of the Household, Springer, vol. 12(1), pages 83-103, March.
    3. Katharina Wrohlich, 2008. "The excess demand for subsidized child care in Germany," Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 40(10), pages 1217-1228.
    4. Edwin van Gameren, 2013. "The Role of Economic Incentives and Attitudes in Participation and Childcare Decisions," Journal of Family and Economic Issues, Springer, vol. 34(3), pages 296-313, September.
    5. R. Brau & M. Lippi Bruni & AM. Pinna, 2004. "Public vs private demand for covering long term care expenditures," Working Paper CRENoS 200408, Centre for North South Economic Research, University of Cagliari and Sassari, Sardinia.
    6. Greenberg, Joy Pastan, 2011. "The impact of maternal education on children's enrollment in early childhood education and care," Children and Youth Services Review, Elsevier, vol. 33(7), pages 1049-1057, July.
    7. Rinaldo Brau & Matteo Lippi Bruni & Anna Maria Pinna, 2010. "Public versus private demand for covering long-term care expenditures," Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 42(28), pages 3651-3668.
    8. Colm Harmon & Claire Finn & Arnaud Chevalier & Tarja Viitanen, 2006. "The economics of early childhood care and education : technical research paper for the National Economic and Social Forum," Open Access publications 10197/671, School of Economics, University College Dublin.
    9. Lundberg, Shelly, 2005. "The Division of Labor by New Parents: Does Child Gender Matter?," IZA Discussion Papers 1787, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
    10. María Suárez, 2013. "Working mothers’ decisions on childcare: the case of Spain," Review of Economics of the Household, Springer, vol. 11(4), pages 545-561, December.
    11. Wolter, Stefan C. & Coradi Vellacott, Maja, 2002. "Sibling Rivalry: A Look at Switzerland with PISA Data," IZA Discussion Papers 594, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).

    More about this item


    Child care · double-hurdle model;

    JEL classification:

    • J2 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demand and Supply of Labor
    • C5 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Econometric Modeling


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