IDEAS home Printed from
   My bibliography  Save this article

Entrepreneurship in small agricultural quick-impact enterprises in Iran: development of an index, effective factors and obstacles


  • Kurosh Rezaei-Moghaddam

    () (Shiraz University)

  • Hoda Izadi

    (Shiraz University)


Abstract Small enterprises are one of the most effective factors in the development of each country’s economic and social systems, having the ability to compete with large industries, so these enterprises are mainly focused by authorities. This study aimed to develop indicators of entrepreneurship in rural small enterprises as well as identifying the effective factors and obstacles to provide strategies of entrepreneurship development. The population of study included small business owners in Fars Province, Iran that initiated business in rural areas through quick-impact enterprises project. Developing entrepreneurship index was conducted using the Delphi method and was tested using survey method. Data were gathered through interviews and questionnaires. According to the results of study, entrepreneurship development index in quick-impact enterprises includes 11 components affected by individuals, organizations and environment. Based on the results, management skills, knowledge management, business environment, self-managed training, and government policies are predictors of changes of entrepreneurship development in quick-impact enterprises. Additionally, factor analysis indicated five obstacles in development of entrepreneurship in quick-impact enterprises, including financial problems, market orientation, weakness of information, poor and inappropriate business environment and weakness in supportive government policies. Finally, some applicable recommendations were presented based on the study results.

Suggested Citation

  • Kurosh Rezaei-Moghaddam & Hoda Izadi, 2019. "Entrepreneurship in small agricultural quick-impact enterprises in Iran: development of an index, effective factors and obstacles," Journal of Global Entrepreneurship Research, Springer;UNESCO Chair in Entrepreneurship, vol. 9(1), pages 1-21, December.
  • Handle: RePEc:spr:jglont:v:9:y:2019:i:1:d:10.1186_s40497-018-0133-3
    DOI: 10.1186/s40497-018-0133-3

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL:
    File Function: Abstract
    Download Restriction: no

    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Tåg, Joacim & Åstebro, Thomas & Thompson, Peter, 2016. "Hierarchies and entrepreneurship," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 89(C), pages 129-147.
    2. Tulus Tambunan, 2008. "Trade liberalization effects on the development of small and medium-sized enterprises in Indonesia: a case study," Asia-Pacific Development Journal, United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP), vol. 15(2), pages 35-59, December.
    3. Pia Arenius & Dirk Clercq, 2005. "A Network-based Approach on Opportunity Recognition," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 24(3), pages 249-265, February.
    4. Gartner, William B. & Shane, Scott A., 1995. "Measuring entrepreneurship over time," Journal of Business Venturing, Elsevier, vol. 10(4), pages 283-301, July.
    5. Nadim Ahmad & Anders Hoffman, 2008. "A Framework for Addressing and Measuring Entrepreneurship," OECD Statistics Working Papers 2008/2, OECD Publishing.
    6. Tumasjan, Andranik & Braun, Reiner, 2012. "In the eye of the beholder: How regulatory focus and self-efficacy interact in influencing opportunity recognition," Journal of Business Venturing, Elsevier, vol. 27(6), pages 622-636.
    7. Davidsson, Per & Honig, Benson, 2003. "The role of social and human capital among nascent entrepreneurs," Journal of Business Venturing, Elsevier, vol. 18(3), pages 301-331, May.
    8. Urbano, David & Aparicio, Sebastian, 2016. "Entrepreneurship capital types and economic growth: International evidence," Technological Forecasting and Social Change, Elsevier, vol. 102(C), pages 34-44.
    9. Lerner, Miri & Brush, Candida & Hisrich, Robert, 1997. "Israeli women entrepreneurs: An examination of factors affecting performance," Journal of Business Venturing, Elsevier, vol. 12(4), pages 315-339, July.
    10. Coduras, Alicia & Saiz-Alvarez, José Manuel & Ruiz, Jesús, 2016. "Measuring Readiness for Entrepreneurship: An Information Tool Proposal," MPRA Paper 86603, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    11. J. Metcalfe, 2004. "The entrepreneur and the style of modern economics," Journal of Evolutionary Economics, Springer, vol. 14(2), pages 157-175, June.
    12. Chakraborty, Shankha & Thompson, Jon C. & Yehoue, Etienne B., 2016. "The culture of entrepreneurship," Journal of Economic Theory, Elsevier, vol. 163(C), pages 288-317.
    13. Crecente-Romero, Fernando & Giménez-Baldazo, Mónica & Rivera-Galicia, Luis F., 2016. "Subjective perception of entrepreneurship. Differences among countries," Journal of Business Research, Elsevier, vol. 69(11), pages 5158-5162.
    14. Andrew Henley, 2005. "Job Creation by the Self-employed: The Roles of Entrepreneurial and Financial Capital," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 25(2), pages 175-196, September.
    15. Scott Shane, 2000. "Prior Knowledge and the Discovery of Entrepreneurial Opportunities," Organization Science, INFORMS, vol. 11(4), pages 448-469, August.
    16. James Hayton & Gaylen N. Chandler & Dawn R. DeTienne, 2011. "Entrepreneurial opportunity identification and new firm development processes: a comparison of family and non-family new ventures," International Journal of Entrepreneurship and Innovation Management, Inderscience Enterprises Ltd, vol. 13(1), pages 12-31.
    17. Alexander Ardichvili & Richard N. Cardozo, 2000. "A Model Of The Entrepreneurial Opportunity Recognition Process," Journal of Enterprising Culture (JEC), World Scientific Publishing Co. Pte. Ltd., vol. 8(02), pages 103-119.
    18. Wiklund, Johan & Shepherd, Dean, 2005. "Entrepreneurial orientation and small business performance: a configurational approach," Journal of Business Venturing, Elsevier, vol. 20(1), pages 71-91, January.
    19. Hjorth, Daniel & Holt, Robin, 2016. "It's entrepreneurship, not enterprise: Ai Weiwei as entrepreneur," Journal of Business Venturing Insights, Elsevier, vol. 5(C), pages 50-54.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)


    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.

    Cited by:

    1. Kurosh Rezaei-Moghaddam & Ommolbani Karami & Mahsa Fatemi, 2019. "The comparative analysis of marketing activities among rural women entrepreneurs in Fars province, Iran," Journal of Global Entrepreneurship Research, Springer;UNESCO Chair in Entrepreneurship, vol. 9(1), pages 1-20, December.


    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:spr:jglont:v:9:y:2019:i:1:d:10.1186_s40497-018-0133-3. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Sonal Shukla) or (Springer Nature Abstracting and Indexing). General contact details of provider: .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.