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How do area-level socioeconomic status and gender norms affect partner violence against women? Evidence from Tanzania

Listed author(s):
  • Seema Vyas

    ()

    (Kilimanjaro Christian Medical University College
    London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine)

  • Lori Heise

    (Kilimanjaro Christian Medical University College)

Registered author(s):

    Abstract Objectives To explore how area-level socioeconomic status and gender-related norms influence partner violence against women in Tanzania. Methods We analysed data from the 2010 Tanzania Demographic and Health Survey and used multilevel logistic regression to estimate individual and community-level effects on women’s risk of current partner violence. Results Prevalence of current partner violence was 36.1 %; however, variation in prevalence exists across communities. Twenty-nine percent of the variation in the logodds of partner violence is due to community-level influences. When adjusting for individual-level characteristics, this variation falls to 10 % and falls further to 8 % when adjusting for additional community-level factors. Higher levels of women’s acceptance towards wife beating, male unemployment, and years of schooling among men were associated with higher risk of partner violence; however, higher levels of women in paid work were associated with lower risk. Conclusions Area-level poverty and inequitable gender norms were associated with higher risk of partner violence. Empowerment strategies along with addressing social attitudes are likely to achieve reductions in rates of partner violence against women in Tanzania and in other similar low-income country settings.

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    File URL: http://link.springer.com/10.1007/s00038-016-0876-y
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    Article provided by Springer & Swiss School of Public Health (SSPH+) in its journal International Journal of Public Health.

    Volume (Year): 61 (2016)
    Issue (Month): 8 (November)
    Pages: 971-980

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    Handle: RePEc:spr:ijphth:v:61:y:2016:i:8:d:10.1007_s00038-016-0876-y
    DOI: 10.1007/s00038-016-0876-y
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    Order Information: Web: http://www.springer.com/economics/journal/00038

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    1. Boyle, Michael H. & Georgiades, Katholiki & Cullen, John & Racine, Yvonne, 2009. "Community influences on intimate partner violence in India: Women's education, attitudes towards mistreatment and standards of living," Social Science & Medicine, Elsevier, vol. 69(5), pages 691-697, September.
    2. Silberschmidt, Margrethe, 2001. "Disempowerment of Men in Rural and Urban East Africa: Implications for Male Identity and Sexual Behavior," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 29(4), pages 657-671, April.
    3. Kiss, Ligia & Schraiber, Lilia Blima & Heise, Lori & Zimmerman, Cathy & Gouveia, Nelson & Watts, Charlotte, 2012. "Gender-based violence and socioeconomic inequalities: Does living in more deprived neighbourhoods increase women’s risk of intimate partner violence?," Social Science & Medicine, Elsevier, vol. 74(8), pages 1172-1179.
    4. Seema Vyas & Charlotte Watts, 2009. "How does economic empowerment affect women's risk of intimate partner violence in low and middle income countries? A systematic review of published evidence," Journal of International Development, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 21(5), pages 577-602.
    5. Gage, Anastasia J., 2005. "Women's experience of intimate partner violence in Haiti," Social Science & Medicine, Elsevier, vol. 61(2), pages 343-364, July.
    6. VanderEnde, Kristin E. & Yount, Kathryn M. & Dynes, Michelle M. & Sibley, Lynn M., 2012. "Community-level correlates of intimate partner violence against women globally: A systematic review," Social Science & Medicine, Elsevier, vol. 75(7), pages 1143-1155.
    7. Uthman, Olalekan Abdulrahman & Moradi, Tahereh & Lawoko, Stephen, 2009. "The independent contribution of individual-, neighbourhood-, and country-level socioeconomic position on attitudes towards intimate partner violence against women in sub-Saharan Africa: A multilevel m," Social Science & Medicine, Elsevier, vol. 68(10), pages 1801-1809, May.
    8. Michael Koenig & Saifuddin Ahmed & Mian Hossain & A. Mozumder, 2003. "Women’s status and domestic violence in rural Bangladesh: Individual- and community-level effects," Demography, Springer;Population Association of America (PAA), vol. 40(2), pages 269-288, May.
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