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Are sports teams multiproduct firms?


  • Kenneth Stewart


  • J. Jones



The appropriate conception of team outputs is investigated by estimating a two-output factor demand system for baseball teams, relative to which single-output models are rejected. There is, however, some empirical support for output separability, suggesting that team outputs may sometimes be adequately treated as a production aggregate.
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Suggested Citation

  • Kenneth Stewart & J. Jones, 2010. "Are sports teams multiproduct firms?," Empirical Economics, Springer, vol. 39(2), pages 487-514, October.
  • Handle: RePEc:spr:empeco:v:39:y:2010:i:2:p:487-514 DOI: 10.1007/s00181-009-0315-5

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Barnett, William A. & Geweke, John & Wolfe, Michael, 1991. "Seminonparametric Bayesian estimation of the asymptotically ideal production model," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 49(1-2), pages 5-50.
    2. J. C. H. Jones, 1969. "The Economics of the National Hockey League," Canadian Journal of Economics, Canadian Economics Association, vol. 2(1), pages 1-20, February.
    3. Stewart, Kenneth G & Jones, J C H, 1998. "Hedonics and Demand Analysis: The Implicit Demand for Player Attributes," Economic Inquiry, Western Economic Association International, vol. 36(2), pages 192-202, April.
    4. Scully, Gerald W, 1974. "Pay and Performance in Major League Baseball," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 64(6), pages 915-930, December.
    5. Vuong, Quang H, 1989. "Likelihood Ratio Tests for Model Selection and Non-nested Hypotheses," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 57(2), pages 307-333, March.
    6. Diewert, Walter E & Wales, Terence J, 1987. "Flexible Functional Forms and Global Curvature Conditions," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 55(1), pages 43-68, January.
    7. John Goddard & Peter J. Sloane, 2005. "Economics of sport," Chapters,in: Economics Uncut, chapter 12 Edward Elgar Publishing.
    8. Douglas Staiger & James H. Stock, 1997. "Instrumental Variables Regression with Weak Instruments," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 65(3), pages 557-586, May.
    9. Craig A. Depken Ii & Darren Grant, 2011. "Multiproduct Pricing In Major League Baseball: A Principal Components Analysis," Economic Inquiry, Western Economic Association International, vol. 49(2), pages 474-488, April.
    10. Blackorby, Charles & Primont, Daniel & Russell, R. Robert, 1977. "On testing separability restrictions with flexible functional forms," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 5(2), pages 195-209, March.
    11. Stefan Szymanski, 2003. "The Economic Design of Sporting Contests," Journal of Economic Literature, American Economic Association, vol. 41(4), pages 1137-1187, December.
    12. Hall, Robert E, 1973. "The Specification of Technology with Several Kinds of Output," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 81(4), pages 878-892, July-Aug..
    13. Donald G. Ferguson & J. C. H. Jones & Kenneth G. Stewart, 2000. "Competition Within A Cartel: League Conduct And Team Conduct In The Market For Baseball Player Services," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 82(3), pages 422-430, August.
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    Cited by:

    1. Yazid Dissou & Reza Ghazal, 2010. "Energy Substitutability in Canadian Manufacturing Econometric Estimation with Bootstrap Confidence Intervals," The Energy Journal, International Association for Energy Economics, vol. 0(Number 1), pages 121-148.
    2. Kenneth Stewart, 2009. "Non-jointness and scope economies in the multiproduct symmetric generalized McFadden cost function," Journal of Productivity Analysis, Springer, vol. 32(3), pages 161-171, December.

    More about this item


    Sports economics; Hedonic price; Multi-output production; Symmetric generalized McFadden;

    JEL classification:

    • D24 - Microeconomics - - Production and Organizations - - - Production; Cost; Capital; Capital, Total Factor, and Multifactor Productivity; Capacity
    • L83 - Industrial Organization - - Industry Studies: Services - - - Sports; Gambling; Restaurants; Recreation; Tourism


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