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Contraintes de débouchés, capacités de production et chômage dans un modèle macroéconomique avec concurrence imparfaite

Listed author(s):
  • Sneessens, Henri R.


The purpose of this paper is to show how to combine in a unified setup recent developments on wage and price formation together with the key features of models with quantity constraints. This is done in a traditional three-goods (goods, labor and money) two-market (goods and labor) setup, plus energy for the analysis of the consequences of an oil shock. Prices are set by monopolistically competitive firms; the wage rate is set by the union. We examine successively the properties of the short-run (fixed productive capacity; fixed prices and wages), the medium-run (fixed productive capacity; endogenous prices and wages), and the long-run (endogenous productive capacity, wages and prices) equilibria, especially the equilibrium values of the unemployment and capacity utilization rates, and of the proportion of sales-constrained firms. It is shown in particular that a large proportion of sales-constrained firms is not necessarily an indication that demand should be reflated. Le but de cet article est de montrer comment l’on peut intégrer dans un même modèle les développements récents sur la formation des prix et des salaires d’une part, et les apports de la théorie du déséquilibre d’autre part. Le modèle proposé est essentiellement un modèle à trois biens (biens produits, travail et monnaie) et deux marchés (biens et travail), auquel on ajoutera l’énergie afin d’illustrer les conséquences d’un choc pétrolier. Les prix sont fixés par des entreprises en concurrence monopolistique, les salaires par le syndicat des travailleurs. On détermine dans ce schéma les valeurs d’équilibre du taux de chômage, du taux d’utilisation des capacités et de la proportion d’entreprises contraintes par les débouchés. On analyse successivement les équilibres à court terme (capacité de production, prix et salaires fixes), moyen terme (capacité de production fixe; prix et salaires endogènes) et long terme (prix, salaires et capacité de production endogènes). On verra en particulier qu’une proportion élevée d’entreprises contraintes par les débouchés ne signifie nullement qu’une politique de relance puisse résorber le chômage.

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Article provided by Société Canadienne de Science Economique in its journal L'Actualité économique.

Volume (Year): 68 (1992)
Issue (Month): 1 (mars et juin)
Pages: 140-174

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Handle: RePEc:ris:actuec:v:68:y:1992:i:1:p:140-174
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