IDEAS home Printed from
   My bibliography  Save this article

Human Resources and Business Performance: Findings, Unanswered Questions, and an Alternative Approach


  • Barry Gerhart

    () (University of Wisconsin-Madison)


In 1996, Becker and Gerhart noted that much of the work on human resources (HR) and performance had traditionally been conducted at the individual level of analysis. However, in the 1990s, empirical research on HR and performance increasingly moved to the plant/unit and firm level of analysis with a new emphasis on understanding how HR practices influence business performance at these higher levels. In the present article, I describe the empirical findings of this evolving literature, unanswered questions, and an approach to the issue that differs from what has come to be the typical approach over the past 10 years or so.

Suggested Citation

  • Barry Gerhart, 2005. "Human Resources and Business Performance: Findings, Unanswered Questions, and an Alternative Approach," management revue. Socio-economic Studies, Rainer Hampp Verlag, vol. 16(2), pages 174-185.
  • Handle: RePEc:rai:mamere:1861-9908_mrev_2005_02_gerhart

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL:
    Download Restriction: no


    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.

    Cited by:

    1. A.K.M. Mominul Haque Talukder, 2013. "Human Resource Consultancy and Organizational Growth: Exploring the Relationship," KASBIT Business Journals, Khadim Ali Shah Bukhari Institute of Technology (KASBIT), vol. 6, pages 65-73, December.
    2. Minbaeva, Dana B., 2008. "HRM practices affecting extrinsic and intrinsic motivation of knowledge receivers and their effect on intra-MNC knowledge transfer," International Business Review, Elsevier, vol. 17(6), pages 703-713, December.
    3. Cristina Simón & RAQUEL MARTIN, 2008. "An implementation-based approach to SHRM: the concept of hr practice intensity and its relationship," Working Papers Economia wp08-19, Instituto de Empresa, Area of Economic Environment.
    4. Li-Ren Yang & Jieh-Haur Chen & Kun-Shan Wu & Di-Man Huang & Cheng-Hao Cheng, 2015. "A framework for evaluating relationship among HRM practices, project success and organizational benefit," Quality & Quantity: International Journal of Methodology, Springer, vol. 49(3), pages 1039-1061, May.
    5. Michaelis, Björn & Wagner, Joachim D. & Schweizer, Lars, 2015. "Knowledge as a key in the relationship between high-performance work systems and workforce productivity," Journal of Business Research, Elsevier, vol. 68(5), pages 1035-1044.
    6. Katou Anastasia, 2008. "Innovation and Human Resource Management: the Greek Experience," Organizacija, De Gruyter Open, vol. 41(3), pages 81-90, May.
    7. Alfes, Kerstin & Shantz, Amanda & Truss, Catherine & Soane, Emma, 2013. "The link between perceived human resource management practices, engagement and employee behaviour: a moderated mediation model," LSE Research Online Documents on Economics 42345, London School of Economics and Political Science, LSE Library.

    More about this item


    Human Resources; Performance; Employee Relations; Employee Attitudes; Methodology;

    JEL classification:

    • F23 - International Economics - - International Factor Movements and International Business - - - Multinational Firms; International Business
    • J53 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Labor-Management Relations, Trade Unions, and Collective Bargaining - - - Labor-Management Relations; Industrial Jurisprudence
    • M10 - Business Administration and Business Economics; Marketing; Accounting; Personnel Economics - - Business Administration - - - General


    Access and download statistics


    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:rai:mamere:1861-9908_mrev_2005_02_gerhart. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Rainer Hampp). General contact details of provider: .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    We have no references for this item. You can help adding them by using this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.