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Rationalité, monnaie et activité

  • Herschel I. Grossman

[eng] This article discusses recent analyses of the real effects of monetary aggregates. Monetarists, at first, then proponents of the New Classical Economics, in a more extreme fashion, have contended that systematic monetary policies have no influence on production or employment. However empirical studies do not support this proposition : A relation between money and activity is indeed observed. Real business cycle theories cannot convincingly account for such a relation, which is closer to what Keynesian theory predicts. But this theory implies that agents do not exhaust perceived gains from trade. How then can economic rationality be reconciled with monetary disequilibrium ? The paper offers a review of the various attempts to give this approach orthodox foundations. Its conclusion is that near- rationality seems, for now, to be the most useful « as-if » assumption in explaining macro-economic fluctuations. [fre] Cet article fait le point sur les travaux récents portant sur les effets réels de la variation des agrégats monétaires. Le monétarisme d'abord, puis sous une forme plus radicale la nouvelle école classique, concluent qu'une politique monétaire systématique ne peut influencer la production ou l'emploi. Les travaux empiriques ne confirment pas cette conclusion, car il existe de fait une relation entre monnaie et activité. Les théories du cycle réel de l'activité ne fournissent pas une explication convaincante de cette relation, qui est davantage conforme aux prédictions de la théorie keynésienne. Mais cette dernière implique l'existence de gains potentiels de l'échange qui ne seraient pas mis à profit par les agents économiques. Comment alors concilier la rationalité économique et le déséquilibre monétaire ? L'article passe en revue les différentes théories de cette conciliation, pour conclure que le concept de quasi-rationalité fournit pour l'instant l'hypothèse provisoire la plus utile pour l'explication des fluctuations macroéconomiques.

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File URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.3406/ofce.1986.1057
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File URL: http://www.persee.fr/articleAsPDF/ofce_0751-6614_1986_num_15_1_1057/ofce_0751-6614_1986_num_15_1_1057.pdf?mode=light
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Article provided by Programme National Persée in its journal Revue de l'OFCE.

Volume (Year): 15 (1986)
Issue (Month): 1 ()
Pages: 207-216

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Handle: RePEc:prs:rvofce:ofce_0751-6614_1986_num_15_1_1057
Note: DOI:10.3406/ofce.1986.1057
Contact details of provider: Web page: http://www.persee.fr/web/revues/home/prescript/revue/ofce

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