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Les activités pro ou contra-cycliques et la grande crise américaine des années trente

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  • Isaac Johsua

Abstract

[eng] This article develops elements of interpretation of the Great Depression of the thirties within the United Sates. We argue that, all along the nineteen century, agriculture played in this country an important role as a stabilisator of business cycles. We examine, in particular, the role of farm production for self use, wether that this production was used for personal consumption or used for investments. Under such conditions, the relative erosion of the share of farm production, and its counterpart represented by the development of wage earning class, created a deep déstabilisation effect. The combination of those two movements will dramatically speed up at the edge of the XIX-XXth centuries as a consequence of the end of the Frontier and its secular trend for exploiting new lands. Our argument proposes that this capital event will have long lasting effects and explains in part the Great Depression of the thirties. [fre] Isaac Johsua Les activités pro ou contra-cycliques et la grande crise américaine des années trente. Cet article traite du déroulement de la grande crise des années trente aux États-Unis. Nous y soulignons le rôle équilibrant au 19' siècle, face au « business cycle » américain, de l'agriculture de ce pays et de son importante production pour compte propre, une production qui vise la consommation, mais également l'investissement. Le recul de la place de cette agriculture (et sa contrepartie, la montée de celle du salariat) auront, de ce fait, un profond impact déstabilisateur, lequel, à notre sens, frayera la voie à la grande dépression. Ces deux mouvements combinés (recul de l'agriculture et montée du salariat) connaîtront une particulière accélération à la jonction des 19e et 20f siècles, accélération qui peut s'expliquer en partie par la fin de la frontière, par la fin de la séculaire colonisation des sols du nouveau monde.

Suggested Citation

  • Isaac Johsua, 1996. "Les activités pro ou contra-cycliques et la grande crise américaine des années trente," Revue Française d'Économie, Programme National Persée, vol. 11(4), pages 83-117.
  • Handle: RePEc:prs:rfreco:rfeco_0769-0479_1996_num_11_4_1009
    Note: DOI:10.3406/rfeco.1996.1009
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