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Retraites, générations et catégories sociales : de l'équité comme contrainte à l'équité comme objectif

  • Marc Fleurbaey

[fre] À propos des retraites, l'équité est parfois définie sous la forme d'égalité de niveaux de vie entre actifs et retraités, ou entre générations successives, ou encore en termes de neutralité actuarielle des cotisations retraites et des pensions. Aucun de ces critères n'est convaincant, et l'on peut remplacer ces critères, utilisés habituellement comme des contraintes, par des objectifs souples qui incorporent des éléments d'équité. Ceci conduit à donner une certaine priorité aux plus défavorisés, lesquels sont repérés en fonction des préférences des individus face à leur situation socioéconomique (revenu, incertitude, activité, santé..,). Il apparaît alors important de garantir aux générations futures un niveau de vie au moins aussi élevé que celui des générations présentes, et de veiller aux catégories sociales les plus défavorisées dans la génération actuelle. Classification JEL : D3, H55, J26 [eng] Retirement, successive generations and social fairness As far as pensions are concerned, fairness is sometimes defined as equality of income between retired and working individuals, or between successive generations, or else as actuarial neutrality of pensions and contributions. None of these criteria is convincing, and instead of introducing fairness as a constraint, flexible social objectives which incorporate notions of fairness can be formulated. This leads to give some priority to the worse off, and determined on their individuals' preferences regarding their own social and economic situations (income, uncertainty, activity, health...). As a consequence of this approach, a sustainable development should be strived, and focus on the worse off social subgroups in the current generation. JEL classification : D3, H55, J26

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Article provided by Programme National Persée in its journal Revue d'économie financière.

Volume (Year): 68 (2002)
Issue (Month): 4 ()
Pages: 91-111

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Handle: RePEc:prs:recofi:ecofi_0987-3368_2002_num_68_4_4774
Note: DOI:10.3406/ecofi.2002.4774
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  1. Samuelson, Paul A, 1977. "Reaffirming the Existence of "Reasonable" Bergson-Samuelson Social Welfare Functions," Economica, London School of Economics and Political Science, vol. 44(173), pages 81-88, February.
  2. Marc Fleurbaey, 2000. "Choix social : une difficulté et de multiples possibilités," Revue Économique, Programme National Persée, vol. 51(5), pages 1215-1232.
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