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Expatriate assignment, adjustment and effectiveness: an empirical examination of the big picture


  • Jeffrey P Shay

    (School of Business Administration, University of Montana, Missoula, MT, USA)

  • Sally A Baack

    (College of Business, San Francisco State University, San Francisco, CA, USA)


This study extends the international literature by empirically testing a model of expatriate adjustment that examines the relationships between organizational antecedents (i.e., reasons for assignment), a more comprehensive set of adjustment behaviors, self-reported performance, and subordinate-rated managerial effectiveness. Using data from 194 expatriate managers and 505 subordinates working in the multinational hotel industry, structural equations modeling results supported the hypothesized model. The conceptual and empirical contributions of this study as well as the managerial implications are discussed. Journal of International Business Studies (2004) 35, 216–232. doi:10.1057/palgrave.jibs.8400081

Suggested Citation

  • Jeffrey P Shay & Sally A Baack, 2004. "Expatriate assignment, adjustment and effectiveness: an empirical examination of the big picture," Journal of International Business Studies, Palgrave Macmillan;Academy of International Business, vol. 35(3), pages 216-232, May.
  • Handle: RePEc:pal:jintbs:v:35:y:2004:i:3:p:216-232

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    Cited by:

    1. Li, Shenxue & Scullion, Hugh, 2010. "Developing the local competence of expatriate managers for emerging markets: A knowledge-based approach," Journal of World Business, Elsevier, vol. 45(2), pages 190-196, April.
    2. Bader, Benjamin & Schuster, Tassilo, 2015. "Expatriate Social Networks in Terrorism-Endangered Countries: An Empirical Analysis in Afghanistan, India, Pakistan, and Saudi Arabia," Journal of International Management, Elsevier, vol. 21(1), pages 63-77.
    3. Elliot, Statia & Papadopoulos, Nicolas, 2016. "Of products and tourism destinations: An integrative, cross-national study of place image," Journal of Business Research, Elsevier, vol. 69(3), pages 1157-1165.
    4. Shay, Jeffrey P. & Tracey, J. Bruce, 2009. "Expatriate adjustment and effectiveness: The mediating role of managerial practices," Journal of International Management, Elsevier, vol. 15(4), pages 401-412, December.
    5. repec:spr:manint:v:51:y:2011:i:1:d:10.1007_s11575-010-0063-y is not listed on IDEAS
    6. Collings, David G., 2014. "Integrating global mobility and global talent management: Exploring the challenges and strategic opportunities," Journal of World Business, Elsevier, vol. 49(2), pages 253-261.
    7. Bader, Benjamin & Berg, Nicola & Holtbrügge, Dirk, 2015. "Expatriate performance in terrorism-endangered countries: The role of family and organizational support," International Business Review, Elsevier, vol. 24(5), pages 849-860.
    8. Baruch, Yehuda & Budhwar, Pawan S. & Khatri, Naresh, 2007. "Brain drain: Inclination to stay abroad after studies," Journal of World Business, Elsevier, vol. 42(1), pages 99-112, March.
    9. Collings, David G. & Morley, Michael J. & Gunnigle, Patrick, 2008. "Composing the top management team in the international subsidiary: Qualitative evidence on international staffing in U.S. MNCs in the Republic of Ireland," Journal of World Business, Elsevier, vol. 43(2), pages 197-212, March.
    10. Fortanier, Fabienne & van Wijk, Jeroen, 2010. "Sustainable tourism industry development in sub-Saharan Africa: Consequences of foreign hotels for local employment," International Business Review, Elsevier, vol. 19(2), pages 191-205, April.
    11. Ma Eugenia Sánchez Vidal & Raquel Sanz Valle & Ma Isabel Barba Aragón, 2010. "Analysis of the repatriation adjustment process in the Spanish context," International Journal of Manpower, Emerald Group Publishing, vol. 31(1), pages 21-41, March.
    12. Kim, Kwanghyun & Slocum Jr., John W., 2008. "Individual differences and expatriate assignment effectiveness: The case of U.S.-based Korean expatriates," Journal of World Business, Elsevier, vol. 43(1), pages 109-126, January.

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