Sri Lanka’s Free Trade Agreements with India and Pakistan: Are They Leading Bilateral Trade Beyond Normalcy?
Bilateralism arises as a “second-best” option when countries seek benefits beyond those of regional approaches to free trade and those of unilateral liberalization. In spite of the regional initiatives for free trade in South Asia along with policy reforms in individual countries, Sri Lanka entered into bilateral free trade agreements (FTAs) with India (2000) and Pakistan (2005). In a situation where trade within the South Asian region has been sluggish despite higher economic growth, trade liberalization, and regional initiatives for integration and cooperation, this article examines from the Sri Lankan point of view whether the bilateral FTAs have resulted in above-normal trade performance. The analysis suggests that better performance in bilateral trade cannot be attributed exclusively to the success of the FTAs any more than weak performance can be attributed to their shortcomings. Apart from this, merchandise trade does not appear to have performed in isolation as the extent of overall bilateral connectivity set the groundwork for greater integration. The article confirms that bilateral FTAs that seek reciprocity in integration and cooperation are indeed a “second-best” option, compared to the potential trade performance associated with unilateral liberalization in trading partner countries.
Volume (Year): 17 (2012)
Issue (Month): Special Edition (September)
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- Prema-chandra Athukorala, 2011.
"Production Networks and Trade Patterns in East Asia: Regionalization or Globalization?,"
Asian Economic Papers,
MIT Press, vol. 10(1), pages 65-95, January.
- Athukorala, Prema-chandra, 2010. "Production Networks and Trade Patterns in East Asia: Regionalization or Globalization?," Working Papers on Regional Economic Integration 56, Asian Development Bank.
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