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Tax Losses due to Shadow Economy Activities in OECD Countries from 2011 to 2013: A preliminary calculation


  • Friedrich SCHNEIDER

    () (Johannes Kepler University of Linz Altenbergerstrasse, Austria.)


In this short paper an attempt is undertaken to calculate the tax losses which result from shadow economy activities in a country. These calculations are done for the 28 EU countries, for 3 non-EU countries and for 2 other highly-developed OECD countries. The total tax losses over all 28 EU-countries make up 450.8 billion euros or 3.6% of EU-28-GDP in 2011. In 2012 it were 457.3 billion euros or 3.5% of EU-28-GDP and in 2013 454.2 billion euros or 3.4% of EU-28-GDP. For the whole country sample used in this paper the tax losses amounted to 698.7 billion euros or 2.4% of GDP of these 33 countries in 2011. In 2012 the value of tax losses was 737.2 billion euros or 2.3% of GDP and in 2013 it was 713.1 billion euros or also 2.3% of total GDP of these 33 countries.

Suggested Citation

  • Friedrich SCHNEIDER, 2016. "Tax Losses due to Shadow Economy Activities in OECD Countries from 2011 to 2013: A preliminary calculation," Turkish Economic Review, KSP Journals, vol. 3(1), pages 1-15, March.
  • Handle: RePEc:ksp:journ2:v:3:y:2016:i:1:p:1-15

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Lars P. Feld & Friedrich Schneider, 2010. "Survey on the Shadow Economy and Undeclared Earnings in OECD Countries," German Economic Review, Verein für Socialpolitik, vol. 11, pages 109-149, May.
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    1. repec:ura:ecregj:v:1:y:2018:i:1:p:326-338 is not listed on IDEAS

    More about this item


    Tax losses; Shadow economy; Tax and social security contribution burden.;

    JEL classification:

    • E26 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - Consumption, Saving, Production, Employment, and Investment - - - Informal Economy; Underground Economy
    • H26 - Public Economics - - Taxation, Subsidies, and Revenue - - - Tax Evasion and Avoidance
    • K42 - Law and Economics - - Legal Procedure, the Legal System, and Illegal Behavior - - - Illegal Behavior and the Enforcement of Law
    • O17 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Economic Development - - - Formal and Informal Sectors; Shadow Economy; Institutional Arrangements


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