How did the notional interest deduction affect Belgian SMEs’ capital structure?
The recently introduced risk capital allowance in Belgium, which allows a notional interest deduction (to be denoted NID hereafter) on a firm’s adjusted equity for tax purposes, has mitigated the tax discrepancy between equity and debt financing. To our knowledge, we provide the first empirical study of the extent to which this regulation has resulted in a strengthening of small and medium sized enterprises’ (to be denoted SMEs hereafter) solvency, which was one of its most prominent objectives. Results from logit regressions reveal that the probability of adopting the NID is higher for lowly leveraged SMEs, SMEs without experience with the tax-exempt investment reserve and SMEs with a sound knowledge of the notional interest deduction regulation. Results on the impact of the NID on the capital structure of SMEs based on panel and first differences regressions reveal that this measure did not result in a significant change of SMEs’ leverage. In view of the discussion regarding the optimal tax and legislative framework that governments should put in place (Poutziouris et al., J Small Bus Enterp Dev 6(1):7–25, 1999 ), these results cast doubt on the risk capital allowance, as it stands now, being the right government instrument to contribute—at least in the short term—to creating a pro-enterprising tax and legislative climate for SMEs. We conclude by providing some general suggestions for improving the effectiveness of the risk capital allowance. Copyright Springer Science+Business Media, LLC. 2013
References listed on IDEAS
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- van der Wijst, Nico & Thurik, Roy, 1993. "Determinants of Small Firm Debt Ratios: An Analysis of Retail Panel Data," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 5(1), pages 55-65, March.
- Douglas W. Diamond, 1991. "Debt Maturity Structure and Liquidity Risk," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 106(3), pages 709-737.
- Graham, John R. & Harvey, Campbell R., 2001. "The theory and practice of corporate finance: evidence from the field," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 60(2-3), pages 187-243, May.
- Lopez-Gracia, Jose & Aybar-Arias, Cristina, 2000. "An Empirical Approach to the Financial Behaviour of Small and Medium Sized Companies," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 14(1), pages 55-63, February.
- Myers, Stewart C., 1977. "Determinants of corporate borrowing," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 5(2), pages 147-175, November.
- Alexander Klemm, 2006.
"Allowances for Corporate Equity in Practice,"
IMF Working Papers
06/259, International Monetary Fund.
- Robin Boadway & Neil Bruce, 1982.
"A General Proposition on the Design of a Neutral Business Tax,"
461, Queen's University, Department of Economics.
- Boadway, Robin & Bruce, Neil, 1984. "A general proposition on the design of a neutral business tax," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 24(2), pages 231-239, July.
- Norton, Edgar, 1991. "Capital structure and small public firms," Journal of Business Venturing, Elsevier, vol. 6(4), pages 287-303, July.
- Kon, Y & Storey, D J, 2003. "A Theory of Discouraged Borrowers," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 21(1), pages 37-49, August.
- Dries Heyman & Marc Deloof & Hubert Ooghe, 2008. "The Financial Structure of Private Held Belgian Firms," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 30(3), pages 301-313, March.
- Degryse, H.A. & de Goeij, P. C. & Kappert, P., 2009. "The Impact of Firm and Industry Characteristics on Small Firms' Capital Structure : Evidence from Dutch Panel Data," Discussion Paper 2009-21, Tilburg University, Center for Economic Research.
- Myers, Stewart C, 1984. " The Capital Structure Puzzle," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 39(3), pages 575-92, July.
- Maria Psillaki & Nikolaos Daskalakis, 2009. "Are the determinants of capital structure country or firm specific?," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 33(3), pages 319-333, October.
- José López-Gracia & Francisco Sogorb-Mira, 2008. "Testing trade-off and pecking order theories financing SMEs," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 31(2), pages 117-136, August.
- Julio Pindado & Luis Rodrigues & Chabela Torre, 2006. "How does Financial Distress Affect Small Firms’ Financial Structure?," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 26(4), pages 377-391, 05.
- Eugene F. Fama & Kenneth R. French, .
"Testing Tradeoff and Pecking Order Predictions about Dividends and Debt.”,"
CRSP working papers
506, Center for Research in Security Prices, Graduate School of Business, University of Chicago.
- Eugene F. Fama, 2002. "Testing Trade-Off and Pecking Order Predictions About Dividends and Debt," Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 15(1), pages 1-33, March.
- Stewart C. Myers, 2001. "Capital Structure," Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, vol. 15(2), pages 81-102, Spring.
- M. Bordignon & S. Giannini & P. Panteghini, 1998. "Corporate Taxation in Italy: an Analysis of the 1998 Reform," Working Papers 328, Dipartimento Scienze Economiche, Universita' di Bologna.
- Harris, Milton & Raviv, Artur, 1991. " The Theory of Capital Structure," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 46(1), pages 297-355, March.
- Charles Ou & George Haynes, 2006. "Acquisition of Additional Equity Capital by Small Firms – Findings from the National Survey of Small Business Finances," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 27(2), pages 157-168, October.
- Stiglitz, Joseph E & Weiss, Andrew, 1981. "Credit Rationing in Markets with Imperfect Information," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 71(3), pages 393-410, June.
- Ball, Ray & Shivakumar, Lakshmanan, 2005. "Earnings quality in UK private firms: comparative loss recognition timeliness," Journal of Accounting and Economics, Elsevier, vol. 39(1), pages 83-128, February.
- Chittenden, Francis & Hall, Graham & Hutchinson, Patrick, 1996. "Small Firm Growth, Access to Capital Markets and Financial Structure: Review of Issues and an Empirical Investigation," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 8(1), pages 59-67, February.
- DeAngelo, Harry & Masulis, Ronald W., 1980. "Optimal capital structure under corporate and personal taxation," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 8(1), pages 3-29, March.
- K. Burggraeve & Ph. Jeanfils & K. Van Cauter & L. Van Meensel, 2008. "Macroeconomic and fiscal impact of the risk capital allowance," Economic Review, National Bank of Belgium, issue iii, pages 7-47, September.
- Michael Keen & John King, 2002. "The Croatian profit tax: an ACE in practice," Fiscal Studies, Institute for Fiscal Studies, vol. 23(3), pages 401-418, September.
- Myers, Stewart C., 1984. "Capital structure puzzle," Working papers 1548-84., Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Sloan School of Management.
- Graham C. Hall & Patrick J. Hutchinson & Nicos Michaelas, 2004. "Determinants of the Capital Structures of European SMEs," Journal of Business Finance & Accounting, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 31(5-6), pages 711-728.
- Jeffrey A. Wurgler & Malcolm P. Baker, 2001.
"Market Timing and Capital Structure,"
Yale School of Management Working Papers
ysm181, Yale School of Management.
- Titman, Sheridan & Wessels, Roberto, 1988. " The Determinants of Capital Structure Choice," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 43(1), pages 1-19, March.
- Vos, Ed & Yeh, Andy Jia-Yuh & Carter, Sara & Tagg, Stephen, 2007. "The happy story of small business financing," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 31(9), pages 2648-2672, September.
- Johnson, W. Bruce & Lys, Thomas, 1990. "The market for audit services : Evidence from voluntary auditor changes," Journal of Accounting and Economics, Elsevier, vol. 12(1-3), pages 281-308, January.
- Francisco Sogorb-Mira, 2005. "How SME Uniqueness Affects Capital Structure: Evidence From A 1994–1998 Spanish Data Panel," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 25(5), pages 447-457, December.
- F. Voulgaris & D. Asteriou & G. Agiomirgianakis, 2004. "Size and Determinants of Capital Structure in the Greek Manufacturing Sector," International Review of Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 18(2), pages 247-262.
- Stewart C. Myers, 1984. "Capital Structure Puzzle," NBER Working Papers 1393, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Marc Deloof & Marc Jegers, 1999. "Trade Credit, Corporate Groups, and the Financing of Belgian Firms," Journal of Business Finance & Accounting, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 26(7&8), pages 945-966.
- Jensen, Michael C. & Meckling, William H., 1976. "Theory of the firm: Managerial behavior, agency costs and ownership structure," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 3(4), pages 305-360, October.
- Michael Devereux & Rachel Griffith & Alexander Klemm, 2004. "Why has the UK corporation tax raised so much revenue?," Fiscal Studies, Institute for Fiscal Studies, vol. 25(4), pages 367-388, December.
When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:kap:sbusec:v:40:y:2013:i:2:p:351-373. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Sonal Shukla)or (Rebekah McClure)
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.