IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/a/kap/rqfnac/v45y2015i1p175-213.html
   My bibliography  Save this article

Value exploration and materialization in diversification strategies

Author

Listed:
  • Mark Holder
  • Aiwu Zhao

    ()

Abstract

The commonly accepted explanation in early studies to diversification discount is that diversification destroys value because of operational inefficiency. Such argument neglects the value of growth potentials incorporated in the value measures such as market-to-book ratio. Our study indicates that diversification activities are strategic decisions that will change the real options of a firm and will create value impacts that are different from those caused by changes in operational efficiency. We find that diversification activities, especially unrelated diversification activities, carried out by below average performers tend to increase firm value, in terms of market-to-book ratio, as a result of exploring for new growth opportunities. Whereas diversification activities carried out by above average performers tend to decrease firm value as a result of materializing excess capability. The result indicates that value changes around diversification are different for different firms. In addition to changes in operational efficiency, changes in growth potentials play a role in explaining diversification discount phenomenon as well. Copyright Springer Science+Business Media New York 2015

Suggested Citation

  • Mark Holder & Aiwu Zhao, 2015. "Value exploration and materialization in diversification strategies," Review of Quantitative Finance and Accounting, Springer, vol. 45(1), pages 175-213, July.
  • Handle: RePEc:kap:rqfnac:v:45:y:2015:i:1:p:175-213
    DOI: 10.1007/s11156-014-0434-8
    as

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL: http://hdl.handle.net/10.1007/s11156-014-0434-8
    Download Restriction: Access to full text is restricted to subscribers.

    As the access to this document is restricted, you may want to search for a different version of it.

    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Morck, Randall & Shleifer, Andrei & Vishny, Robert W, 1990. " Do Managerial Objectives Drive Bad Acquisitions?," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 45(1), pages 31-48, March.
    2. Lang, Larry H P & Stulz, Rene M, 1994. "Tobin's q, Corporate Diversification, and Firm Performance," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 102(6), pages 1248-1280, December.
    3. Andrew B. Abel & Avinash K. Dixit & Janice B. Eberly & Robert S. Pindyck, "undated". "Options, the Value of Capital, and Investment," Rodney L. White Center for Financial Research Working Papers 15-95, Wharton School Rodney L. White Center for Financial Research.
    4. Stein, Jeremy C, 1997. " Internal Capital Markets and the Competition for Corporate Resources," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 52(1), pages 111-133, March.
    5. Shleifer, Andrei & Vishny, Robert W., 1989. "Management entrenchment : The case of manager-specific investments," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 25(1), pages 123-139, November.
    6. Vojislav Maksimovic & Gordon Phillips, 2002. "Do Conglomerate Firms Allocate Resources Inefficiently Across Industries? Theory and Evidence," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 57(2), pages 721-767, April.
    7. R. Glenn Hubbard & Darius Palia, 1999. "A Reexamination of the Conglomerate Merger Wave in the 1960s: An Internal Capital Markets View," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 54(3), pages 1131-1152, June.
    8. Morck, Randall & Yeung, Bernard, 1991. "Why Investors Value Multinationality," The Journal of Business, University of Chicago Press, vol. 64(2), pages 165-187, April.
    9. John G. Matsusaka, 1993. "Takeover Motives during the Conglomerate Merger Wave," RAND Journal of Economics, The RAND Corporation, vol. 24(3), pages 357-379, Autumn.
    10. Lubos PÁstor & Veronesi Pietro, 2003. "Stock Valuation and Learning about Profitability," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 58(5), pages 1749-1790, October.
    11. Joao Gomes & Dmitry Livdan, 2004. "Optimal Diversification: Reconciling Theory and Evidence," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 59(2), pages 507-535, April.
    12. Andrew B. Abel & Avinash K. Dixit & Janice C. Eberly & Robert S. Pindyck, 1996. "Options, the Value of Capital, and Investment," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 111(3), pages 753-777.
    13. Kadiyala, Padmaja, 2000. "The Relation between the Magnitude of Growth Opportunities and the Duration of Equity," Journal of Financial Research, Southern Finance Association;Southwestern Finance Association, vol. 23(3), pages 285-310, Fall.
    14. Sascha Mölls & Karl-Heinz Schild, 2012. "Decision-making in sequential projects: expected time-to-build and probability of failure," Review of Quantitative Finance and Accounting, Springer, vol. 39(1), pages 1-25, July.
    15. Jose Manuel Campa & Simi Kedia, 2002. "Explaining the Diversification Discount," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 57(4), pages 1731-1762, August.
    16. repec:fth:michin:282 is not listed on IDEAS
    17. Hyun-Han Shin & René M. Stulz, 1998. "Are Internal capital Markets Efficient?," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 113(2), pages 531-552.
    18. Nalin Kulatilaka & Enrico C. Perotti, 1998. "Strategic Growth Options," Management Science, INFORMS, vol. 44(8), pages 1021-1031, August.
    19. Toni M. Whited, 2001. "Is It Inefficient Investment that Causes the Diversification Discount?," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 56(5), pages 1667-1691, October.
    20. David S. Scharfstein & Jeremy C. Stein, 2000. "The Dark Side of Internal Capital Markets: Divisional Rent-Seeking and Inefficient Investment," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 55(6), pages 2537-2564, December.
    21. Loughran, Tim & Vijh, Anand M, 1997. " Do Long-Term Shareholders Benefit from Corporate Acquisitions?," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 52(5), pages 1765-1790, December.
    22. Alvarez, Luis H. R., 1999. "Optimal exit and valuation under demand uncertainty: A real options approach," European Journal of Operational Research, Elsevier, vol. 114(2), pages 320-329, April.
    23. Myers, Stewart C., 1977. "Determinants of corporate borrowing," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 5(2), pages 147-175, November.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    Citations

    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.
    as


    Cited by:

    1. de Andrés, Pablo & de la Fuente, Gabriel & Velasco, Pilar, 2016. "Are real options a missing piece in the diversification-value puzzle?," International Review of Financial Analysis, Elsevier, vol. 48(C), pages 261-271.
    2. de Andrés, Pablo & de la Fuente, Gabriel & Velasco, Pilar, 2017. "Does it really matter how a firm diversifies? Assets-in-place diversification versus growth options diversification," Journal of Corporate Finance, Elsevier, vol. 43(C), pages 316-339.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    Diversification; Resource-based view; Real options; Firm value; G12; G34;

    JEL classification:

    • G12 - Financial Economics - - General Financial Markets - - - Asset Pricing; Trading Volume; Bond Interest Rates
    • G34 - Financial Economics - - Corporate Finance and Governance - - - Mergers; Acquisitions; Restructuring; Corporate Governance

    Statistics

    Access and download statistics

    Corrections

    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:kap:rqfnac:v:45:y:2015:i:1:p:175-213. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Sonal Shukla) or (Rebekah McClure). General contact details of provider: http://springer.com .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.