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Flags of our fathers: Voting on Confederate symbols in the State of Georgia

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  • Michael Reksulak
  • Gökhan Karahan
  • William Shughart

Abstract

Participants in a special election held in the State of Georgia on 2 March 2004 voted overwhelmingly in favor of adopting a newly designed state flag that no longer incorporated a divisive Confederate symbol. We analyze the legislative politicking that defined the voters’ options as well as the outcome of popular voting on the flag design across Georgia’s 159 counties. We find the referendum’s results to have been determined largely by demography (education, race, and population density) and by the level of support in 2002 for the two gubernatorial candidates who played significant roles in the flag controversy. Copyright Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2007

Suggested Citation

  • Michael Reksulak & Gökhan Karahan & William Shughart, 2007. "Flags of our fathers: Voting on Confederate symbols in the State of Georgia," Public Choice, Springer, vol. 131(1), pages 83-99, April.
  • Handle: RePEc:kap:pubcho:v:131:y:2007:i:1:p:83-99
    DOI: 10.1007/s11127-006-9106-0
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    File URL: http://hdl.handle.net/10.1007/s11127-006-9106-0
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    1. repec:cup:apsrev:v:88:y:1994:i:02:p:317-326_09 is not listed on IDEAS
    2. Mueller,Dennis C., 2003. "Public Choice III," Cambridge Books, Cambridge University Press, number 9780521894753, May.
    3. Crain, W Mark & Leavens, Donald R & Tollison, Robert D, 1986. "Final Voting in Legislatures," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 76(4), pages 833-841, September.
    4. Charles S. Bullock & M. V. Hood, 2005. "When Southern Symbolism Meets the Pork Barrel: Opportunity for Executive Leadership," Social Science Quarterly, Southwestern Social Science Association, vol. 86(1), pages 69-86.
    5. G–khan R. Karahan & William F. Shughart II, 2004. "Under Two Flags: Symbolic Voting in the State of Mississippi," Public Choice, Springer, vol. 118(1_2), pages 105-124, January.
    6. Stephen Coate & Michael Conlin, 2004. "A Group Rule–Utilitarian Approach to Voter Turnout: Theory and Evidence," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 94(5), pages 1476-1504, December.
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    Cited by:

    1. Jeffrey Grynaviski & Michael Munger, 2014. "Did southerners favor slavery? Inferences from an analysis of prices in New Orleans, 1805–1860," Public Choice, Springer, vol. 159(3), pages 341-361, June.

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