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Reconsidering Nonlinearity and Asymmetry in Customer Satisfaction and Loyalty Models: An Empirical Study in Three Retail Service Settings


  • Sandra Streukens


  • Ko de Ruyter



The use of symmetric linear functional forms to describe the relationships among customer evaluative judgments is omnipresent in services research. However, according to several researchers, the use of symmetric linear functions to model the relationships among customer evaluative judgments leads to serious model misspecification. Although several asymmetric nonlinear functional forms have been proposed, only modest empirical evidence is available on the superiority of these more complex model specifications. Based on a formal empirical comparison in multiple service settings, we find that asymmetric nonlinear functions do not possess superior explanatory power compared to symmetric linear functional forms.

Suggested Citation

  • Sandra Streukens & Ko de Ruyter, 2004. "Reconsidering Nonlinearity and Asymmetry in Customer Satisfaction and Loyalty Models: An Empirical Study in Three Retail Service Settings," Marketing Letters, Springer, vol. 15(2_3), pages 99-111, July.
  • Handle: RePEc:kap:mktlet:v:15:y:2004:i:2_3:p:99-111

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    Cited by:

    1. Rychalski, Aude & Hudson, Sarah, 2017. "Asymmetric effects of customer emotions on satisfaction and loyalty in a utilitarian service context," Journal of Business Research, Elsevier, vol. 71(C), pages 84-91.
    2. Jaiswal, A. K. & Niraj, Rakesh, 2007. "Examining the Nonlinear Effects in Satisfaction-Loyalty-Behavioral Intentions Model," IIMA Working Papers WP2007-11-01, Indian Institute of Management Ahmedabad, Research and Publication Department.
    3. repec:eee:ijrema:v:32:y:2015:i:2:p:195-206 is not listed on IDEAS
    4. repec:eee:jouret:v:90:y:2014:i:4:p:567-586 is not listed on IDEAS
    5. repec:eee:jouret:v:90:y:2014:i:3:p:408-427 is not listed on IDEAS
    6. Jeffrey Dotson & Joseph Retzer & Greg Allenby, 2008. "Non-normal simultaneous regression models for customer linkage analysis," Quantitative Marketing and Economics (QME), Springer, vol. 6(3), pages 257-277, September.
    7. repec:eee:joreco:v:15:y:2008:i:5:p:335-347 is not listed on IDEAS
    8. repec:eee:ijrema:v:28:y:2011:i:1:p:38-50 is not listed on IDEAS
    9. repec:eee:joreco:v:31:y:2016:i:c:p:355-360 is not listed on IDEAS
    10. repec:eee:jbrese:v:85:y:2018:i:c:p:117-126 is not listed on IDEAS
    11. Jenny Doorn & Peter Verhoef & Tammo Bijmolt, 2007. "The importance of non-linear relationships between attitude and behaviour in policy research," Journal of Consumer Policy, Springer, vol. 30(2), pages 75-90, June.

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