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How Employed Mothers in Australia Find Time for Both Market Work and Childcare

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  • Lyn Craig

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Abstract

Time use studies find that employed mothers reduce their parental childcare time by much less than an hour for every hour they spend in market work. This paper uses data from the Australian Bureau of Statistics Time Use Survey 1997 (4,059 randomly selected households) to investigate how employed mothers manage to avoid a one-for-one trade-off between work and childcare. It compares the time allocation of employed fathers, employed mothers and non-employed mothers and finds that parents use non-parental childcare to reschedule as well as to replace their own childcare, that employed mothers reschedule activities from weekdays to weekends or to earlier or later in the day, and spend less time than other mothers in housework, childfree leisure and personal care. Copyright Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2007

Suggested Citation

  • Lyn Craig, 2007. "How Employed Mothers in Australia Find Time for Both Market Work and Childcare," Journal of Family and Economic Issues, Springer, vol. 28(1), pages 69-87, March.
  • Handle: RePEc:kap:jfamec:v:28:y:2007:i:1:p:69-87
    DOI: 10.1007/s10834-006-9047-2
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    1. Martin Browning & Valérie Lechene, 2003. "Children and Demand: Direct and Non-Direct Effects," Review of Economics of the Household, Springer, vol. 1(1), pages 9-31, January.
    2. Michael Bittman, 1999. "Parenthood Without Penalty: Time Use And Public Policy In Australia And Finland," Feminist Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 5(3), pages 27-42.
    3. Dominique Anxo & Paul Carlin, 2004. "Intra-family time allocation to housework - French evidence," electronic International Journal of Time Use Research, Research Institute on Professions (Forschungsinstitut Freie Berufe (FFB)) and The International Association for Time Use Research (IATUR), vol. 1(1), pages 14-36, August.
    4. David M. Blau, 1997. "The Production of Quality in Child Care Centers," Journal of Human Resources, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 32(2), pages 354-387.
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    Citations

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    Cited by:

    1. Scott Fuess & Jack Hou, 2009. "Rapid Economic Development and Job Segregation in Taiwan," Journal of Family and Economic Issues, Springer, vol. 30(2), pages 171-183, June.
    2. Berenice Monna & Anne Gauthier, 2008. "A Review of the Literature on the Social and Economic Determinants of Parental Time," Journal of Family and Economic Issues, Springer, vol. 29(4), pages 634-653, December.
    3. Scott Fuess, 2012. "Leisure in Japan, 1986–2006: A Revival?," Journal of Family and Economic Issues, Springer, vol. 33(2), pages 250-260, June.
    4. Chikako Yamauchi, 2010. "Parental Investment in Children: Differential Pathways of Parental Education and Mental Health," The Economic Record, The Economic Society of Australia, vol. 86(273), pages 210-226, June.
    5. Jennifer Baxter, 2011. "Flexible Work Hours and Other Job Factors in Parental Time with Children," Social Indicators Research: An International and Interdisciplinary Journal for Quality-of-Life Measurement, Springer, vol. 101(2), pages 239-242, April.
    6. Maria Gutiérrez-Domènech, 2010. "Parental employment and time with children in Spain," Review of Economics of the Household, Springer, vol. 8(3), pages 371-391, September.
    7. George Hondroyiannis, 2010. "Fertility Determinants and Economic Uncertainty: An Assessment Using European Panel Data," Journal of Family and Economic Issues, Springer, vol. 31(1), pages 33-50, March.
    8. José Giménez-Nadal & Miriam Marcén & Raquel Ortega, 2012. "Substitution and Presence Effects of Children on Mothers’ Adult Care Time," Journal of Family and Economic Issues, Springer, vol. 33(1), pages 2-10, March.
    9. M. Nakhaie, 2009. "Professors, Ideology and Housework," Journal of Family and Economic Issues, Springer, vol. 30(4), pages 399-411, December.
    10. Karina Shreffler & Amy Pirretti & Robert Drago, 2010. "Work–Family Conflict and Fertility Intentions: Does Gender Matter?," Journal of Family and Economic Issues, Springer, vol. 31(2), pages 228-240, June.
    11. Markus Brueckner, 2016. "Mortality and urbanization: An African tragedy," CAMA Working Papers 2016-66, Centre for Applied Macroeconomic Analysis, Crawford School of Public Policy, The Australian National University.
    12. Jean Wallace, 2008. "Parenthood and Commitment to the Legal Profession: Are Mothers Less Committed than Fathers?," Journal of Family and Economic Issues, Springer, vol. 29(3), pages 478-495, September.
    13. José Molina & Víctor Montuenga, 2009. "The Motherhood Wage Penalty in Spain," Journal of Family and Economic Issues, Springer, vol. 30(3), pages 237-251, September.
    14. Anne Winkler & Thomas Ireland, 2009. "Time Spent in Household Management: Evidence and Implications," Journal of Family and Economic Issues, Springer, vol. 30(3), pages 293-304, September.
    15. Nick Parr, 2011. "The contribution of increases in family benefits to Australia’s early 21st-century fertility increase: An empirical analysis," Demographic Research, Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research, Rostock, Germany, vol. 25(6), pages 215-244, July.
    16. Ana Moro-Egido, 2012. "Changing Trends of Mothers’ Active and Passive Childcare Times," Journal of Family and Economic Issues, Springer, vol. 33(1), pages 11-23, March.
    17. Elisabeth Ugreninov, 2013. "Can Family Policy Reduce Mothers’ Sick Leave Absence? A Causal Analysis of the Norwegian Paternity Leave Reform," Journal of Family and Economic Issues, Springer, vol. 34(4), pages 435-446, December.
    18. Cristina Borra & Luis Palma, 2009. "Child Care Choices in Spain," Journal of Family and Economic Issues, Springer, vol. 30(4), pages 323-338, December.
    19. Wen You & George Davis, 2011. "Childhood Overweight: Does Quality of Parental Childcare Time Matter?," Journal of Family and Economic Issues, Springer, vol. 32(2), pages 219-232, June.
    20. Charlene Kalenkoski & Gigi Foster, 2008. "The quality of time spent with children in Australian households," Review of Economics of the Household, Springer, vol. 6(3), pages 243-266, September.
    21. Molina, José Alberto & Montuenga, Víctor M., 2008. "The Motherhood Wage Penalty in a Mediterranean Country: The Case of Spain," IZA Discussion Papers 3574, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
    22. Ross Guest & Nick Parr, 2013. "Family policy and couples’ labour supply: an empirical assessment," Journal of Population Economics, Springer;European Society for Population Economics, vol. 26(4), pages 1631-1660, October.
    23. Andrew Tan & Steven Yen & Rodolfo Nayga, 2009. "Factors Affecting Alcohol Purchase Decisions and Expenditures: A Sample Selection Analysis by Ethnicity in Malaysia," Journal of Family and Economic Issues, Springer, vol. 30(2), pages 149-159, June.
    24. Pia S. Schober, 2012. "Parental Leave Policies and Child Care Time in Couples after Childbirth," SOEPpapers on Multidisciplinary Panel Data Research 434, DIW Berlin, The German Socio-Economic Panel (SOEP).

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