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Economic Impacts of the 1997 EU Energy Tax: Simulations with Three EU-Wide Models

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  • Heinz Jansen
  • Ger Klaassen

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Abstract

In March 1997 the European Commission adopted aproposal that increases existing minimum levels oftaxation on mineral oils by around 10 to 25% andintroduces excises for other energy products. Thispaper analyses the macroeconomic impacts of theproposal. It employs three models: HERMES, GEM-E3, andE3ME. All models confirm that the proposal will havepositive macroeconomic impacts when the tax revenuesare used to reduce social security contributions paidby employers. For the EU as a whole, both GDP andemployment are expected to be higher and CO 2 emissions are 0.9 to 1.6 percent lower. The positiveEU-wide effects can be observed in practically allmember states. The sector impacts are modest, with theenergy sector expected to face the most negativeimpacts. Differences between model results are due tothe model type (general equilibrium ormacro-econometric), the EU countries covered and theway tax exemptions were handled. Crucial assumptionsto obtain the ``double dividend'' are the modelling ofthe labour market and the impacts on EU externaltrade. The sensitivity of the results for the use oftax revenues, tax exemptions and tax rate increases isassessed. Copyright Kluwer Academic Publishers 2000

Suggested Citation

  • Heinz Jansen & Ger Klaassen, 2000. "Economic Impacts of the 1997 EU Energy Tax: Simulations with Three EU-Wide Models," Environmental & Resource Economics, Springer;European Association of Environmental and Resource Economists, vol. 15(2), pages 179-197, February.
  • Handle: RePEc:kap:enreec:v:15:y:2000:i:2:p:179-197
    DOI: 10.1023/A:1008309512349
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    1. Capros, P. & Georgakopoulos, P. & Zografakis, S. & Proost, S., 1996. "Double dividend analysis: first results of a general equilibrium mode (GEM-E3) linking the EU countries," CORE Discussion Papers RP 1207, Université catholique de Louvain, Center for Operations Research and Econometrics (CORE).
    2. repec:cor:louvrp:-1207 is not listed on IDEAS
    3. Lawrence H. Goulder & Ian W. H. Parry & Dallas Burtraw, 1996. "Revenue-Raising vs. Other Approaches to Environmental Protection: The Critical Significance of Pre-Existing Tax Distortions," NBER Working Papers 5641, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
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    Cited by:

    1. Michael KOHLHAAS & Martin CAMES & Jochen DIEKMANN & Dieter SCHUMACHER & Katja SCHUMACHER, "undated". "Economic, Environmental and International Trade Effects of the EU Directive on Energy Tax Harmonization," EcoMod2004 330600079, EcoMod.
    2. Dannenberg, Astrid & Mennel, Tim & Moslener, Ulf, 2008. "What does Europe pay for clean energy?--Review of macroeconomic simulation studies," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 36(4), pages 1318-1330, April.
    3. Denise VAN REGEMORTER & Bert SAVEYN, "undated". "Environmental Policy in a Federal State: A Regional CGE Analysis of the NEC Directive in Belgium," Regional and Urban Modeling 284100045, EcoMod.
    4. Chen, Shiyi, 2013. "What is the potential impact of a taxation system reform on carbon abatement and industrial growth in China?," Economic Systems, Elsevier, vol. 37(3), pages 369-386.
    5. Obernhofer, Ulrich & Rennings, Klaus & Sahin, Bedia, 2006. "The impacts of the European Emissions Trading Scheme on competitiveness and employment in Europe: A literature review," ZEW Expertises, ZEW - Zentrum für Europäische Wirtschaftsforschung / Center for European Economic Research, number 111466.
    6. Alberto Gago & Xavier Labandeira & Xiral López Otero, 2014. "A Panorama on Energy Taxes and Green Tax Reforms," Hacienda Pública Española, IEF, vol. 208(1), pages 145-190, March.
    7. : Eduardo L. Giménez (a) & Miguel Rodríguez, "undated". "Pigou’S Dividend Versus Ramsey’S Dividend In The Double Dividend Literature," Working Papers 2-06 Classification-JEL :, Instituto de Estudios Fiscales.
    8. Patuelli, Roberto & Nijkamp, Peter & Pels, Eric, 2005. "Environmental tax reform and the double dividend: A meta-analytical performance assessment," Ecological Economics, Elsevier, vol. 55(4), pages 564-583, December.
    9. Sijm, Jos & Lehmann, Paul & Chewpreecha, Unnada & Gawel, Erik & Mercure, Jean-Francois & Pollitt, Hector & Strunz, Sebastian, 2014. "EU climate and energy policy beyond 2020: Are additional targets and instruments for renewables economically reasonable?," UFZ Discussion Papers 3/2014, Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research (UFZ), Division of Social Sciences (ÖKUS).
    10. Olga Kiuila & Anil Markandya, 2009. "Can transition economies implement a carbon tax and hope for a double dividend? The case of Estonia," Applied Economics Letters, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 16(7), pages 705-709.

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