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Economic, Environmental and International Trade Effects of the EU Directive on Energy Tax Harmonization

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Listed:
  • Michael Kohlhaas
  • Katja Schumacher
  • Jochen Diekmann
  • Dieter Schumacher
  • Martin Cames

Abstract

In October 2003, the European Union introduced a Directive which widens the scope of the EU's minimum taxation system from mineral oils to all energy products including coal, natural gas and electricity. It aims at reducing distortions that currently exist between Member States as well as between energy products. In addition, it increases previous minimum tax rates and thus the incentive to use energy more efficiently. The Directive will lead to changes in the energy tax schemes in a number of countries, in particular some southern Member Countries (Greece, Spain, Portugal) and most of the Eastern European EU candidate countries. In this paper, we analyze the effects of the EU energy tax harmonization with GTAP-E, a computable general equilibrium model. Particular focus is placed on the Eastern European countries which became new members of the EU in May 2004. We investigate the effects of the tax harmonization on overall economic growth and sectoral development. Special attention is paid to international trade in order to analyze if competitiveness concerns which have been forwarded in the context of energy taxation are valid. Furthermore, the effect on energy consumption and emissions and thus the contribution to the EU's climate change targets is analyzed.

Suggested Citation

  • Michael Kohlhaas & Katja Schumacher & Jochen Diekmann & Dieter Schumacher & Martin Cames, 2004. "Economic, Environmental and International Trade Effects of the EU Directive on Energy Tax Harmonization," Discussion Papers of DIW Berlin 462, DIW Berlin, German Institute for Economic Research.
  • Handle: RePEc:diw:diwwpp:dp462
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    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Barker, Terry, 1998. "The effects on competitiveness of coordinated versus unilateral fiscal policies reducing GHG emissions in the EU: an assessment of a 10% reduction by 2010 using the E3ME model," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 26(14), pages 1083-1098, December.
    2. Heinz Jansen & Ger Klaassen, 2000. "Economic Impacts of the 1997 EU Energy Tax: Simulations with Three EU-Wide Models," Environmental & Resource Economics, Springer;European Association of Environmental and Resource Economists, vol. 15(2), pages 179-197, February.
    3. McDougall, Robert, 2000. "A New Regional Household Demand System for GTAP," GTAP Working Papers 404, Center for Global Trade Analysis, Department of Agricultural Economics, Purdue University.
    4. Burniaux, Jean-Marc & Truong Truong, 2002. "GTAP-E: An Energy-Environmental Version of the GTAP Model," GTAP Technical Papers 923, Center for Global Trade Analysis, Department of Agricultural Economics, Purdue University.
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    Citations

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    Cited by:

    1. Dannenberg, Astrid & Mennel, Tim & Moslener, Ulf, 2008. "What does Europe pay for clean energy?--Review of macroeconomic simulation studies," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 36(4), pages 1318-1330, April.
    2. Daniela Pîrvu & Emilia Clipici, 2010. "Perspectives of the Environmental Taxes Evolution in the European Union," Romanian Economic Journal, Department of International Business and Economics from the Academy of Economic Studies Bucharest, vol. 13(38), pages 147-161, December.
    3. Alberto Gago & Xavier Labandeira & Xiral López Otero, 2014. "A Panorama on Energy Taxes and Green Tax Reforms," Hacienda Pública Española, IEF, vol. 208(1), pages 145-190, March.
    4. Bilgili, Faik, 2010. "Energy tax harmonization in EU: Time series and panel data evidence," MPRA Paper 24013, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    5. Mihaela NICOLAU, 2010. "The influence of taxation on energy products price and consequences on the global economy," EuroEconomica, Danubius University of Galati, issue 24, pages 99-109, March.
    6. repec:gam:jsusta:v:9:y:2017:i:11:p:1986-:d:117096 is not listed on IDEAS

    More about this item

    JEL classification:

    • C68 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Mathematical Methods; Programming Models; Mathematical and Simulation Modeling - - - Computable General Equilibrium Models
    • F18 - International Economics - - Trade - - - Trade and Environment
    • H23 - Public Economics - - Taxation, Subsidies, and Revenue - - - Externalities; Redistributive Effects; Environmental Taxes and Subsidies
    • O52 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Economywide Country Studies - - - Europe

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