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Incorporating risk into the analysis of production


  • Joseph Hughes


This paper evaluates alternative strategies for incorporating risk into the analysis of production and argues that accounting for the effects on production of financial structure and endogenous risk, motivated by the objective of value maximization, is essential to recovering firms' technologies, measuring their efficiencies, and detecting such risk-related phenomena as the effects of better diversification on scale economies and the agency costs of different mixes of debt and equity. This paper also demonstrates how the Most Preferred Production System of Hughes et al. [1996] incorporates endogenous risk and the firm's financial structure and, in doing so, is able to control for differences in risk among banks in measuring their profit efficiency and to uncover scale economies in U.S. commercial banking that elude studies based on standard cost and profit functions. Copyright International Atlantic Economic Society 1999

Suggested Citation

  • Joseph Hughes, 1999. "Incorporating risk into the analysis of production," Atlantic Economic Journal, Springer;International Atlantic Economic Society, vol. 27(1), pages 1-23, March.
  • Handle: RePEc:kap:atlecj:v:27:y:1999:i:1:p:1-23
    DOI: 10.1007/BF02299174

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    References listed on IDEAS

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    5. Joseph P. Hughes & Loretta J. Mester, 1998. "Bank Capitalization And Cost: Evidence Of Scale Economies In Risk Management And Signaling," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 80(2), pages 314-325, May.
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    7. Berger, Allen N. & Humphrey, David B., 1997. "Efficiency of financial institutions: International survey and directions for future research," European Journal of Operational Research, Elsevier, vol. 98(2), pages 175-212, April.
    8. Jondrow, James & Knox Lovell, C. A. & Materov, Ivan S. & Schmidt, Peter, 1982. "On the estimation of technical inefficiency in the stochastic frontier production function model," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 19(2-3), pages 233-238, August.
    9. Diewert, W.E., 1993. "Duality approaches to microeconomic theory," Handbook of Mathematical Economics,in: K. J. Arrow & M.D. Intriligator (ed.), Handbook of Mathematical Economics, edition 4, volume 2, chapter 12, pages 535-599 Elsevier.
    10. Braeutigam, Ronald R. & Daughety, Andrew F., 1983. "On the estimation of returns to scale using variable cost functions," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 11(1-2), pages 25-31.
    11. Berger, Allen N. & Hunter, William C. & Timme, Stephen G., 1993. "The efficiency of financial institutions: A review and preview of research past, present and future," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 17(2-3), pages 221-249, April.
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    13. McAllister, Patrick H. & McManus, Douglas, 1993. "Resolving the scale efficiency puzzle in banking," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 17(2-3), pages 389-405, April.
    14. Evanoff, Douglas D & Israilevich, Philip R & Merris, Randall C, 1990. "Relative Price Efficiency, Technical Change, and Scale Economies for Large Commercial Banks," Journal of Regulatory Economics, Springer, vol. 2(3), pages 281-298, September.
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    16. Douglas D. Evanoff, 1998. "Assessing the impact of regulation on bank cost efficiency," Economic Perspectives, Federal Reserve Bank of Chicago, issue Q II, pages 21-32.
    17. Deaton, Angus S & Muellbauer, John, 1980. "An Almost Ideal Demand System," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 70(3), pages 312-326, June.
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    Cited by:

    1. Joseph P. Hughes & Loretta J. Mester, 2008. "Efficiency in Banking: Theory, Practice, and Evidence," Departmental Working Papers 200801, Rutgers University, Department of Economics.
    2. Curi, Claudia & Lozano-Vivas, Ana & Zelenyuk, Valentin, 2015. "Foreign bank diversification and efficiency prior to and during the financial crisis: Does one business model fit all?," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 61(S1), pages 22-35.
    3. Hughes, Joseph P. & Lang, William W. & Mester, Loretta J. & Moon, Choon-Geol & Pagano, Michael S., 2003. "Do bankers sacrifice value to build empires? Managerial incentives, industry consolidation, and financial performance," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 27(3), pages 417-447, March.
    4. Chen, Ku-Hsieh, 2012. "Incorporating risk input into the analysis of bank productivity: Application to the Taiwanese banking industry," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 36(7), pages 1911-1927.
    5. Chiu, Yung-Ho & Chen, Yu-Chuan, 2009. "The analysis of Taiwanese bank efficiency: Incorporating both external environment risk and internal risk," Economic Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 26(2), pages 456-463, March.
    6. Delis, Manthos & Iosifidi, Maria & Tsionas, Mike G, 2017. "Endogenous bank risk and efficiency," European Journal of Operational Research, Elsevier, vol. 260(1), pages 376-387.
    7. Koutsomanoli-Filippaki, Anastasia & Mamatzakis, Emmanuel, 2009. "Performance and Merton-type default risk of listed banks in the EU: A panel VAR approach," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 33(11), pages 2050-2061, November.
    8. Jong-Kun Lee & Biaggio Bossone, 2002. "In Finance, Size Matters," IMF Working Papers 02/113, International Monetary Fund.
    9. Yang Li & Yi-Kai Chen & Feng Sheng Chien & Wen Chih Lee & Yi Ching Hsu, 2016. "Study of optimal capital adequacy ratios," Journal of Productivity Analysis, Springer, vol. 45(3), pages 261-274, June.
    10. Anastasia Koutsomanoli-Filippaki & Emmanuel Mamatzakis, 2009. "Performance and Merton-Type Default Risk of Listed Banks in EU: a panel VAR approach," Discussion Paper Series 2009_09, Department of Economics, University of Macedonia, revised Apr 2009.
    11. Joseph P. Hughes & Loretta J. Mester & Choon-Geol Moon, 2000. "Are All Scale Economies in Banking Elusive or Illusive: Evidence Obtained by Incorporating Capital Structure and Risk Taking into Models of Bank Production," Center for Financial Institutions Working Papers 00-33, Wharton School Center for Financial Institutions, University of Pennsylvania.
    12. Mamatzakis, E & Koutsomanoli, A, 2009. "Risk in the EU banking industry and efficiency under quantile analysis," MPRA Paper 22492, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    13. Hughes, Joseph P. & Mester, Loretta J. & Moon, Choon-Geol, 2001. "Are scale economies in banking elusive or illusive?: Evidence obtained by incorporating capital structure and risk-taking into models of bank production," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 25(12), pages 2169-2208, December.
    14. Miguel Boucinha & Nuno Ribeiro & Thomas Weyman-Jones, 2013. "An assessment of Portuguese banks’ efficiency and productivity towards euro area participation," Journal of Productivity Analysis, Springer, vol. 39(2), pages 177-190, April.
    15. Christopher Marshall & Michael Siegel, 1996. "Value at Risk: Implementing a Risk Measurement Standard," Center for Financial Institutions Working Papers 96-47, Wharton School Center for Financial Institutions, University of Pennsylvania.
    16. Joseph P. Hughes & Loretta J. Mester & Choon-Geol Moon, 2000. "Are Scale Economies in Banking Elusive or Illusive?," Departmental Working Papers 200004, Rutgers University, Department of Economics.
    17. Joseph Hughes & William Lang & Loretta Mester & Choon-Geol Moon, 2000. "Recovering Risky Technologies Using the Almost Ideal Demand System: An Application to U.S. Banking," Journal of Financial Services Research, Springer;Western Finance Association, vol. 18(1), pages 5-27, October.
    18. Joseph P. Hughes, 2013. "The Elusive Scale Economies of the Largest Banks and Their Implications for Global Competitiveness," World Scientific Book Chapters,in: The Role of Central Banks in Financial Stability How Has It Changed?, chapter 17, pages 327-345 World Scientific Publishing Co. Pte. Ltd..
    19. Hughes, Joseph P. & Mester, Loretta J., 2013. "Measuring the Performance of Banks: Theory, Practice, Evidence, and Some Policy Implications," Working Papers 13-28, University of Pennsylvania, Wharton School, Weiss Center.
    20. Felix Rioja & Neven Valev, 2002. "Financial Development and Growth: A Positive, Monotonic Relationship?," International Center for Public Policy Working Paper Series, at AYSPS, GSU paper0207, International Center for Public Policy, Andrew Young School of Policy Studies, Georgia State University.
    21. Saeed, Momna & Izzeldin, Marwan, 2016. "Examining the relationship between default risk and efficiency in Islamic and conventional banks," Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization, Elsevier, vol. 132(S), pages 127-154.
    22. Chiu, Yung-ho & Luo, Zhengying & Chen, Yu-Chuan & Wang, Zebin & Tsai, Min-Pei, 2013. "A comparison of operating performance management between Taiwan banks and foreign banks based on the Meta-Hybrid DEA model," Economic Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 33(C), pages 433-439.

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