IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/a/inm/ormnsc/v54y2008i3p608-622.html
   My bibliography  Save this article

Customized Bundle Pricing for Information Goods: A Nonlinear Mixed-Integer Programming Approach

Author

Listed:
  • Shin-yi Wu

    () (Nanyang Business School, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore 639798, Singapore)

  • Lorin M. Hitt

    () (The Wharton School, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104)

  • Pei-yu Chen

    () (Tepper School of Business, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15213)

  • G. Anandalingam

    () (Robert H. Smith School of Business, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742)

Abstract

This paper proposes using nonlinear mixed-integer programming to solve the customized bundle-pricing problem in which consumers are allowed to choose up to N goods out of a larger pool of J goods. Prior work has suggested that this mechanism has attractive features for the pricing of information and other low-marginal cost goods. Although closed-form solutions exist for this problem for certain cases of consumer preferences, many interesting scenarios cannot be easily handled without a numerical solution procedure. In this paper, we investigate the efficiency gains created by customized bundling over the alternatives of pure bundling or individual sale under different assumptions about customer preferences and firm cost structure, as well as the potential loss of efficiency caused by pricing with incomplete information about consumer reservation values. Our analysis suggests that customized bundling enhances sellers' profits and enhances welfare when consumers do not place positive values on all goods, and that this consumer characteristic is much more important than the shape of the valuation distribution in determining the optimal pricing scheme. We also find that customized bundling outperforms both pure bundling and individual sale in the presence of incomplete information, and that customized bundling still outperforms other simpler pricing schemes even when exact consumer valuations are not known ex ante.

Suggested Citation

  • Shin-yi Wu & Lorin M. Hitt & Pei-yu Chen & G. Anandalingam, 2008. "Customized Bundle Pricing for Information Goods: A Nonlinear Mixed-Integer Programming Approach," Management Science, INFORMS, vol. 54(3), pages 608-622, March.
  • Handle: RePEc:inm:ormnsc:v:54:y:2008:i:3:p:608-622
    as

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1287/mnsc.1070.0812
    Download Restriction: no

    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Jeffrey K. MacKie-Mason & Juan F. Riveros & Robert S. Gazzale, "undated". "Pricing and Bundling Electronic Information Goods: Field Evidence," Department of Economics Working Papers 2000-01, Department of Economics, Williams College.
    2. Schmalensee, Richard, 1984. "Gaussian Demand and Commodity Bundling," The Journal of Business, University of Chicago Press, vol. 57(1), pages 211-230, January.
    3. Marshall L. Fisher, 1981. "The Lagrangian Relaxation Method for Solving Integer Programming Problems," Management Science, INFORMS, vol. 27(1), pages 1-18, January.
    4. Chuang, John Chung-I & Sirbu, Marvin A., 1999. "Optimal bundling strategy for digital information goods: network delivery of articles and subscriptions," Information Economics and Policy, Elsevier, vol. 11(2), pages 147-176, July.
    5. Salinger, Michael A, 1995. "A Graphical Analysis of Bundling," The Journal of Business, University of Chicago Press, vol. 68(1), pages 85-98, January.
    6. A. Michael Spence, 1980. "Multi-Product Quantity-Dependent Prices and Profitability Constraints," Review of Economic Studies, Oxford University Press, vol. 47(5), pages 821-841.
    7. Lorin M. Hitt & Pei-yu Chen, 2005. "Bundling with Customer Self-Selection: A Simple Approach to Bundling Low-Marginal-Cost Goods," Management Science, INFORMS, vol. 51(10), pages 1481-1493, October.
    8. Shugan, Steven M, 1980. " The Cost of Thinking," Journal of Consumer Research, Oxford University Press, vol. 7(2), pages 99-111, Se.
    9. Yannis Bakos & Erik Brynjolfsson, 1999. "Bundling Information Goods: Pricing, Profits, and Efficiency," Management Science, INFORMS, vol. 45(12), pages 1613-1630, December.
    10. R. Venkatesh & Wagner Kamakura, 2003. "Optimal Bundling and Pricing under a Monopoly: Contrasting Complements and Substitutes from Independently Valued Products," The Journal of Business, University of Chicago Press, vol. 76(2), pages 211-232, April.
    11. David S. Sibley & Padmanabhan Srinagesh, 1997. "Multiproduct Nonlinear Pricing with Multiple Taste Characteristics," RAND Journal of Economics, The RAND Corporation, vol. 28(4), pages 684-707, Winter.
    12. R. Preston McAfee & John McMillan & Michael D. Whinston, 1989. "Multiproduct Monopoly, Commodity Bundling, and Correlation of Values," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 104(2), pages 371-383.
    13. Kamel Jedidi & Sharan Jagpal & Puneet Manchanda, 2003. "Measuring Heterogeneous Reservation Prices for Product Bundles," Marketing Science, INFORMS, vol. 22(1), pages 107-130, July.
    14. William James Adams & Janet L. Yellen, 1976. "Commodity Bundling and the Burden of Monopoly," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 90(3), pages 475-498.
    15. McAfee, R. Preston & McMillan, John, 1988. "Multidimensional incentive compatibility and mechanism design," Journal of Economic Theory, Elsevier, vol. 46(2), pages 335-354, December.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    Citations

    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.
    as


    Cited by:

    1. Mayer, Stefan & Klein, Robert & Seiermann, Stephanie, 2013. "A simulation-based approach to price optimisation of the mixed bundling problem with capacity constraints," International Journal of Production Economics, Elsevier, vol. 145(2), pages 584-598.
    2. Yuanchun Jiang & Jennifer Shang & Chris F. Kemerer & Yezheng Liu, 2011. "Optimizing E-tailer Profits and Customer Savings: Pricing Multistage Customized Online Bundles," Marketing Science, INFORMS, vol. 30(4), pages 737-752, July.
    3. Hemant K. Bhargava, 2012. "Retailer-Driven Product Bundling in a Distribution Channel," Marketing Science, INFORMS, vol. 31(6), pages 1014-1021, November.
    4. repec:spr:ijsaem:v:8:y:2017:i:2:d:10.1007_s13198-017-0581-0 is not listed on IDEAS
    5. Li, Han-Lin & Fang, Shu-Cherng & Huang, Yao-Huei & Nie, Tiantian, 2016. "An enhanced logarithmic method for signomial programming with discrete variables," European Journal of Operational Research, Elsevier, vol. 255(3), pages 922-934.
    6. repec:wsi:apjorx:v:34:y:2017:i:02:n:s0217595917500075 is not listed on IDEAS
    7. Rustam Ibragimov & Johan Walden, 2010. "Optimal Bundling Strategies Under Heavy-Tailed Valuations," Management Science, INFORMS, vol. 56(11), pages 1963-1976, November.
    8. Li, Minqiang & Feng, Haiyang & Chen, Fuzan & Kou, Jisong, 2013. "Numerical investigation on mixed bundling and pricing of information products," International Journal of Production Economics, Elsevier, vol. 144(2), pages 560-571.
    9. Cataldo, Alejandro & Ferrer, Juan–Carlos, 2017. "Optimal pricing and composition of multiple bundles: A two-step approach," European Journal of Operational Research, Elsevier, vol. 259(2), pages 766-777.
    10. Yang, Bibo & Ng, C.T., 2010. "Pricing problem in wireless telecommunication product and service bundling," European Journal of Operational Research, Elsevier, vol. 207(1), pages 473-480, November.
    11. Sheikhzadeh, Mehdi & Elahi, Ehsan, 2013. "Product bundling: Impacts of product heterogeneity and risk considerations," International Journal of Production Economics, Elsevier, vol. 144(1), pages 209-222.
    12. Jiang, Yuanchun & Shang, Jennifer & Liu, Yezheng & May, Jerrold, 2015. "Redesigning promotion strategy for e-commerce competitiveness through pricing and recommendation," International Journal of Production Economics, Elsevier, vol. 167(C), pages 257-270.
    13. Mihai Banciu & Esther Gal-Or & Prakash Mirchandani, 2010. "Bundling Strategies When Products Are Vertically Differentiated and Capacities Are Limited," Management Science, INFORMS, vol. 56(12), pages 2207-2223, December.
    14. Sonja Lehmann & Peter Buxmann, 2009. "Pricing Strategies of Software Vendors," Business & Information Systems Engineering: The International Journal of WIRTSCHAFTSINFORMATIK, Springer;Gesellschaft für Informatik e.V. (GI), vol. 1(6), pages 452-462, December.

    Corrections

    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:inm:ormnsc:v:54:y:2008:i:3:p:608-622. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Mirko Janc). General contact details of provider: http://edirc.repec.org/data/inforea.html .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.